RubyGems is the Ruby standard for publishing and managing third party libraries.

For user documentation, see:

For gem developer documentation see:

  • Creating Gems

  • Gem::Specification

  • Gem::Version for version dependency notes

Further RubyGems documentation can be found at:

RubyGems Plugins

As of RubyGems 1.3.2, RubyGems will load plugins installed in gems or $LOAD_PATH. Plugins must be named 'rubygems_plugin' (.rb, .so, etc) and placed at the root of your gem's require_path. Plugins are discovered via ::find_files and then loaded.

For an example plugin, see the Graph gem which adds a `gem graph` command.

RubyGems Defaults, Packaging

RubyGems defaults are stored in lib/rubygems/defaults.rb. If you're packaging RubyGems or implementing Ruby you can change RubyGems' defaults.

For RubyGems packagers, provide lib/rubygems/defaults/operating_system.rb and override any defaults from lib/rubygems/defaults.rb.

For Ruby implementers, provide lib/rubygems/defaults/#{RUBY_ENGINE}.rb and override any defaults from lib/rubygems/defaults.rb.

If you need RubyGems to perform extra work on install or uninstall, your defaults override file can set pre/post install and uninstall hooks. See ::pre_install, ::pre_uninstall, ::post_install, ::post_uninstall.

Bugs

You can submit bugs to the RubyGems bug tracker on GitHub

Credits

RubyGems is currently maintained by Eric Hodel.

RubyGems was originally developed at RubyConf 2003 by:

  • Rich Kilmer – rich(at)infoether.com

  • Chad Fowler – chad(at)chadfowler.com

  • David Black – dblack(at)wobblini.net

  • Paul Brannan – paul(at)atdesk.com

  • Jim Weirich – jim(at)weirichhouse.org

Contributors:

  • Gavin Sinclair – gsinclair(at)soyabean.com.au

  • George Marrows – george.marrows(at)ntlworld.com

  • Dick Davies – rasputnik(at)hellooperator.net

  • Mauricio Fernandez – batsman.geo(at)yahoo.com

  • Simon Strandgaard – neoneye(at)adslhome.dk

  • Dave Glasser – glasser(at)mit.edu

  • Paul Duncan – pabs(at)pablotron.org

  • Ville Aine – vaine(at)cs.helsinki.fi

  • Eric Hodel – drbrain(at)segment7.net

  • Daniel Berger – djberg96(at)gmail.com

  • Phil Hagelberg – technomancy(at)gmail.com

  • Ryan Davis – ryand-ruby(at)zenspider.com

  • Evan Phoenix – evan(at)fallingsnow.net

  • Steve Klabnik – steve(at)steveklabnik.com

(If your name is missing, PLEASE let us know!)

License

See LICENSE.txt for permissions.

Thanks!

-The RubyGems Team

Methods
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Constants
VERSION = "2.7.3"
 
RUBYGEMS_DIR = File.dirname File.expand_path(__FILE__)
 
WIN_PATTERNS = [ /bccwin/i, /cygwin/i, /djgpp/i, /mingw/i, /mswin/i, /wince/i, ]
 

An Array of Regexps that match windows Ruby platforms.

GEM_DEP_FILES = %w[ gem.deps.rb gems.rb Gemfile Isolate ]
 
REPOSITORY_SUBDIRECTORIES = %w[ build_info cache doc extensions gems specifications ]
 

Subdirectories in a gem repository

REPOSITORY_DEFAULT_GEM_SUBDIRECTORIES = %w[ gems specifications/default ]
 

Subdirectories in a gem repository for default gems

READ_BINARY_ERRORS = begin read_binary_errors = [Errno::EACCES, Errno::EROFS] read_binary_errors << Errno::ENOTSUP if Errno.const_defined?(:ENOTSUP) read_binary_errors end.freeze
 

Exception classes used in a ::read_binary rescue statement. Not all of these are defined in Ruby 1.8.7, hence the need for this convoluted setup.

WRITE_BINARY_ERRORS = begin write_binary_errors = [] write_binary_errors << Errno::ENOTSUP if Errno.const_defined?(:ENOTSUP) write_binary_errors end.freeze
 

Exception classes used in ::write_binary rescue statement. Not all of these are defined in Ruby 1.8.7.

USE_BUNDLER_FOR_GEMDEPS = false
 
LOADED_SPECS_MUTEX = Mutex.new
 
MARSHAL_SPEC_DIR = "quick/Marshal.#{Gem.marshal_version}/"
 

Location of Marshal quick gemspecs on remote repositories

Attributes
[R] done_installing_hooks

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::DependencyInstaller installs a set of gems

[R] gemdeps

GemDependencyAPI object, which is set when .use_gemdeps is called. This contains all the information from the Gemfile.

[R] loaded_specs

Hash of loaded Gem::Specification keyed by name

[R] post_build_hooks

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::Installer#install extracts files and builds extensions

[R] post_install_hooks

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::Installer#install completes installation

[R] post_reset_hooks

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::Specification.reset is run.

[R] post_uninstall_hooks

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::Uninstaller#uninstall completes installation

[R] pre_install_hooks

The list of hooks to be run before Gem::Installer#install does any work

[R] pre_reset_hooks

The list of hooks to be run before Gem::Specification.reset is run.

[R] pre_uninstall_hooks

The list of hooks to be run before Gem::Uninstaller#uninstall does any work

Class Public methods
bin_path(name, exec_name = nil, *requirements)

Find the full path to the executable for gem name. If the exec_name is not given, the gem's default_executable is chosen, otherwise the specified executable's path is returned. requirements allows you to specify specific gem versions.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 254
def self.bin_path(name, exec_name = nil, *requirements)
  # TODO: fails test_self_bin_path_bin_file_gone_in_latest
  # Gem::Specification.find_by_name(name, *requirements).bin_file exec_name

  raise ArgumentError, "you must supply exec_name" unless exec_name

  requirements = Gem::Requirement.default if
    requirements.empty?

  find_spec_for_exe(name, exec_name, requirements).bin_file exec_name
end
binary_mode()

The mode needed to read a file as straight binary.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 319
def self.binary_mode
  'rb'
end
bindir(install_dir=Gem.dir)

The path where gem executables are to be installed.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 326
def self.bindir(install_dir=Gem.dir)
  return File.join install_dir, 'bin' unless
    install_dir.to_s == Gem.default_dir.to_s
  Gem.default_bindir
end
clear_default_specs()

Clear default gem related variables. It is for test

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1302
def clear_default_specs
  @path_to_default_spec_map.clear
end
clear_paths()

Reset the dir and path values. The next time dir or path is requested, the values will be calculated from scratch. This is mainly used by the unit tests to provide test isolation.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 337
def self.clear_paths
  @paths         = nil
  @user_home     = nil
  Gem::Specification.reset
  Gem::Security.reset if defined?(Gem::Security)
end
config_file()

The path to standard location of the user's .gemrc file.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 347
def self.config_file
  @config_file ||= File.join Gem.user_home, '.gemrc'
end
configuration()

The standard configuration object for gems.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 354
def self.configuration
  @configuration ||= Gem::ConfigFile.new []
end
configuration=(config)

Use the given configuration object (which implements the ConfigFile protocol) as the standard configuration object.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 362
def self.configuration=(config)
  @configuration = config
end
datadir(gem_name)

The path to the data directory specified by the gem name. If the package is not available as a gem, return nil.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 370
def self.datadir(gem_name)
  spec = @loaded_specs[gem_name]
  return nil if spec.nil?
  spec.datadir
end
deflate(data)
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 384
def self.deflate(data)
  require 'zlib'
  Zlib::Deflate.deflate data
end
detect_gemdeps(path = nil)

TODO remove with RubyGems 3.0

Alias for: use_gemdeps
dir()

The path where gems are to be installed.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 434
def self.dir
  paths.home
end
done_installing(&hook)

Adds a post-installs hook that will be passed a Gem::DependencyInstaller and a list of installed specifications when Gem::DependencyInstaller#install is complete

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 801
def self.done_installing(&hook)
  @done_installing_hooks << hook
end
ensure_default_gem_subdirectories(dir = Gem.dir, mode = nil)

Quietly ensure the Gem directory dir contains all the proper subdirectories for handling default gems. If we can't create a directory due to a permission problem, then we will silently continue.

If mode is given, missing directories are created with this mode.

World-writable directories will never be created.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 468
def self.ensure_default_gem_subdirectories dir = Gem.dir, mode = nil
  ensure_subdirectories(dir, mode, REPOSITORY_DEFAULT_GEM_SUBDIRECTORIES)
end
ensure_gem_subdirectories(dir = Gem.dir, mode = nil)

Quietly ensure the Gem directory dir contains all the proper subdirectories. If we can't create a directory due to a permission problem, then we will silently continue.

If mode is given, missing directories are created with this mode.

World-writable directories will never be created.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 455
def self.ensure_gem_subdirectories dir = Gem.dir, mode = nil
  ensure_subdirectories(dir, mode, REPOSITORY_SUBDIRECTORIES)
end
env_requirement(gem_name)
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 933
def self.env_requirement(gem_name)
  @env_requirements_by_name ||= {}
  @env_requirements_by_name[gem_name] ||= begin
    req = ENV["GEM_REQUIREMENT_#{gem_name.upcase}"] || '>= 0'.freeze
    Gem::Requirement.create(req)
  end
end
find_files(glob, check_load_path=true)

Returns a list of paths matching glob that can be used by a gem to pick up features from other gems. For example:

Gem.find_files('rdoc/discover').each do |path| load path end

if check_load_path is true (the default), then ::find_files also searches $LOAD_PATH for files as well as gems.

Note that ::find_files will return all files even if they are from different versions of the same gem. See also ::find_latest_files

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 515
def self.find_files(glob, check_load_path=true)
  files = []

  files = find_files_from_load_path glob if check_load_path

  gem_specifications = @gemdeps ? Gem.loaded_specs.values : Gem::Specification.stubs

  files.concat gem_specifications.map { |spec|
    spec.matches_for_glob("#{glob}#{Gem.suffix_pattern}")
  }.flatten

  # $LOAD_PATH might contain duplicate entries or reference
  # the spec dirs directly, so we prune.
  files.uniq! if check_load_path

  return files
end
find_latest_files(glob, check_load_path=true)

Returns a list of paths matching glob from the latest gems that can be used by a gem to pick up features from other gems. For example:

Gem.find_latest_files('rdoc/discover').each do |path| load path end

if check_load_path is true (the default), then ::find_latest_files also searches $LOAD_PATH for files as well as gems.

Unlike ::find_files, ::find_latest_files will return only files from the latest version of a gem.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 551
def self.find_latest_files(glob, check_load_path=true)
  files = []

  files = find_files_from_load_path glob if check_load_path

  files.concat Gem::Specification.latest_specs(true).map { |spec|
    spec.matches_for_glob("#{glob}#{Gem.suffix_pattern}")
  }.flatten

  # $LOAD_PATH might contain duplicate entries or reference
  # the spec dirs directly, so we prune.
  files.uniq! if check_load_path

  return files
end
find_unresolved_default_spec(path)

Find a Gem::Specification of default gem from path

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1285
def find_unresolved_default_spec(path)
  @path_to_default_spec_map[path]
end
finish_resolve(request_set=Gem::RequestSet.new)
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 239
def self.finish_resolve(request_set=Gem::RequestSet.new)
  request_set.import Gem::Specification.unresolved_deps.values
  request_set.import Gem.loaded_specs.values.map {|s| Gem::Dependency.new(s.name, s.version) }

  request_set.resolve_current.each do |s|
    s.full_spec.activate
  end
end
gunzip(data)

Zlib::GzipReader wrapper that unzips data.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 612
def self.gunzip(data)
  Gem::Util.gunzip data
end
gzip(data)

Zlib::GzipWriter wrapper that zips data.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 619
def self.gzip(data)
  Gem::Util.gzip data
end
host()

Get the default RubyGems API host. This is normally https://rubygems.org.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 649
def self.host
  # TODO: move to utils
  @host ||= Gem::DEFAULT_HOST
end
host=(host)

Set the default RubyGems API host.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 656
def self.host= host
  # TODO: move to utils
  @host = host
end
inflate(data)
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 626
def self.inflate(data)
  Gem::Util.inflate data
end
install(name, version = Gem::Requirement.default, *options)

Top level install helper method. Allows you to install gems interactively:

% irb
>> Gem.install "minitest"
Fetching: minitest-3.0.1.gem (100%)
=> [#<Gem::Specification:0x1013b4528 @name="minitest", ...>]
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 638
def self.install name, version = Gem::Requirement.default, *options
  require "rubygems/dependency_installer"
  inst = Gem::DependencyInstaller.new(*options)
  inst.install name, version
  inst.installed_gems
end
latest_rubygems_version()

Returns the latest release version of RubyGems.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 958
def self.latest_rubygems_version
  latest_version_for('rubygems-update') or
    raise "Can't find 'rubygems-update' in any repo. Check `gem source list`."
end
latest_spec_for(name)

Returns the latest release-version specification for the gem name.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 945
def self.latest_spec_for name
  dependency   = Gem::Dependency.new name
  fetcher      = Gem::SpecFetcher.fetcher
  spec_tuples, = fetcher.spec_for_dependency dependency

  spec, = spec_tuples.first

  spec
end
latest_version_for(name)

Returns the version of the latest release-version of gem name

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 966
def self.latest_version_for name
  spec = latest_spec_for name
  spec and spec.version
end
load_env_plugins()

Find all 'rubygems_plugin' files in $LOAD_PATH and load them

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1132
def self.load_env_plugins
  path = "rubygems_plugin"

  files = []
  $LOAD_PATH.each do |load_path|
    globbed = Dir["#{File.expand_path path, load_path}#{Gem.suffix_pattern}"]

    globbed.each do |load_path_file|
      files << load_path_file if File.file?(load_path_file.untaint)
    end
  end

  load_plugin_files files
end
load_path_insert_index()

The index to insert activated gem paths into the $LOAD_PATH. The activated gem's paths are inserted before site lib directory by default.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 665
def self.load_path_insert_index
  $LOAD_PATH.each_with_index do |path, i|
    return i if path.instance_variable_defined?(:@gem_prelude_index)
  end

  index = $LOAD_PATH.index RbConfig::CONFIG['sitelibdir']

  index
end
load_plugins()

Find the 'rubygems_plugin' files in the latest installed gems and load them

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1120
def self.load_plugins
  # Remove this env var by at least 3.0
  if ENV['RUBYGEMS_LOAD_ALL_PLUGINS']
    load_plugin_files find_files('rubygems_plugin', false)
  else
    load_plugin_files find_latest_files('rubygems_plugin', false)
  end
end
load_yaml()

Loads YAML, preferring Psych

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 680
def self.load_yaml
  return if @yaml_loaded
  return unless defined?(gem)

  test_syck = ENV['TEST_SYCK']

  # Only Ruby 1.8 and 1.9 have syck
  test_syck = false unless /^1\./ =~ RUBY_VERSION

  unless test_syck
    begin
      gem 'psych', '>= 2.0.0'
    rescue Gem::LoadError
      # It's OK if the user does not have the psych gem installed.  We will
      # attempt to require the stdlib version
    end

    begin
      # Try requiring the gem version *or* stdlib version of psych.
      require 'psych'
    rescue ::LoadError
      # If we can't load psych, thats fine, go on.
    else
      # If 'yaml' has already been required, then we have to
      # be sure to switch it over to the newly loaded psych.
      if defined?(YAML::ENGINE) && YAML::ENGINE.yamler != "psych"
        YAML::ENGINE.yamler = "psych"
      end

      require 'rubygems/psych_additions'
      require 'rubygems/psych_tree'
    end
  end

  require 'yaml'
  require 'rubygems/safe_yaml'

  # If we're supposed to be using syck, then we may have to force
  # activate it via the YAML::ENGINE API.
  if test_syck and defined?(YAML::ENGINE)
    YAML::ENGINE.yamler = "syck" unless YAML::ENGINE.syck?
  end

  # Now that we're sure some kind of yaml library is loaded, pull
  # in our hack to deal with Syck's DefaultKey ugliness.
  require 'rubygems/syck_hack'

  @yaml_loaded = true
end
location_of_caller(depth = 1)

The file name and line number of the caller of the caller of this method.

depth is how many layers up the call stack it should go.

e.g.,

def a; ::location_of_caller; end a #=> [“x.rb”, 2] # (it'll vary depending on file name and line number)

def b; c; end def c; ::location_of_caller; end b #=> [“x.rb”, 6] # (it'll vary depending on file name and line number)

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 744
def self.location_of_caller(depth = 1)
  caller[depth] =~ /(.*?):(\d+).*?$/i
  file = $1
  lineno = $2.to_i

  [file, lineno]
end
marshal_version()

The version of the Marshal format for your Ruby.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 755
def self.marshal_version
  "#{Marshal::MAJOR_VERSION}.#{Marshal::MINOR_VERSION}"
end
needs()
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 231
def self.needs
  rs = Gem::RequestSet.new

  yield rs

  finish_resolve rs
end
path()
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 438
def self.path
  paths.path
end
paths()

Retrieve the PathSupport object that RubyGems uses to lookup files.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 392
def self.paths
  @paths ||= Gem::PathSupport.new(ENV)
end
paths=(env)

Initialize the filesystem paths to use from env. env is a hash-like object (typically ENV) that is queried for 'GEM_HOME', 'GEM_PATH', and 'GEM_SPEC_CACHE' Keys for the env hash should be Strings, and values of the hash should be Strings or nil.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 402
  def self.paths=(env)
    clear_paths
    target = {}
    env.each_pair do |k,v|
      case k
      when 'GEM_HOME', 'GEM_PATH', 'GEM_SPEC_CACHE'
        case v
        when nil, String
          target[k] = v
        when Array
          unless Gem::Deprecate.skip
            warn <<-eowarn
Array values in the parameter to `Gem.paths=` are deprecated.
Please use a String or nil.
An Array (#{env.inspect}) was passed in from #{caller[3]}
            eowarn
          end
          target[k] = v.join File::PATH_SEPARATOR
        end
      else
        target[k] = v
      end
    end
    @paths = Gem::PathSupport.new ENV.to_hash.merge(target)
    Gem::Specification.dirs = @paths.path
  end
platforms()

Array of platforms this RubyGems supports.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 769
def self.platforms
  @platforms ||= []
  if @platforms.empty?
    @platforms = [Gem::Platform::RUBY, Gem::Platform.local]
  end
  @platforms
end
platforms=(platforms)

Set array of platforms this RubyGems supports (primarily for testing).

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 762
def self.platforms=(platforms)
  @platforms = platforms
end
post_build(&hook)

Adds a post-build hook that will be passed an Gem::Installer instance when Gem::Installer#install is called. The hook is called after the gem has been extracted and extensions have been built but before the executables or gemspec has been written. If the hook returns false then the gem's files will be removed and the install will be aborted.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 784
def self.post_build(&hook)
  @post_build_hooks << hook
end
post_install(&hook)

Adds a post-install hook that will be passed an Gem::Installer instance when Gem::Installer#install is called

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 792
def self.post_install(&hook)
  @post_install_hooks << hook
end
post_reset(&hook)

Adds a hook that will get run after Gem::Specification.reset is run.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 809
def self.post_reset(&hook)
  @post_reset_hooks << hook
end
post_uninstall(&hook)

Adds a post-uninstall hook that will be passed a Gem::Uninstaller instance and the spec that was uninstalled when Gem::Uninstaller#uninstall is called

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 818
def self.post_uninstall(&hook)
  @post_uninstall_hooks << hook
end
pre_install(&hook)

Adds a pre-install hook that will be passed an Gem::Installer instance when Gem::Installer#install is called. If the hook returns false then the install will be aborted.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 827
def self.pre_install(&hook)
  @pre_install_hooks << hook
end
pre_reset(&hook)

Adds a hook that will get run before Gem::Specification.reset is run.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 835
def self.pre_reset(&hook)
  @pre_reset_hooks << hook
end
pre_uninstall(&hook)

Adds a pre-uninstall hook that will be passed an Gem::Uninstaller instance and the spec that will be uninstalled when Gem::Uninstaller#uninstall is called

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 844
def self.pre_uninstall(&hook)
  @pre_uninstall_hooks << hook
end
prefix()

The directory prefix this RubyGems was installed at. If your prefix is in a standard location (ie, rubygems is installed where you'd expect it to be), then prefix returns nil.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 853
def self.prefix
  prefix = File.dirname RUBYGEMS_DIR

  if prefix != File.expand_path(RbConfig::CONFIG['sitelibdir']) and
     prefix != File.expand_path(RbConfig::CONFIG['libdir']) and
     'lib' == File.basename(RUBYGEMS_DIR) then
    prefix
  end
end
read_binary(path)

Safely read a file in binary mode on all platforms.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 873
def self.read_binary(path)
  open path, 'rb+' do |f|
    f.flock(File::LOCK_EX)
    f.read
  end
rescue *READ_BINARY_ERRORS
  open path, 'rb' do |f|
    f.read
  end
rescue Errno::ENOLCK # NFS
  if Thread.main != Thread.current
    raise
  else
    open path, 'rb' do |f|
      f.read
    end
  end
end
refresh()

Refresh available gems from disk.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 866
def self.refresh
  Gem::Specification.reset
end
register_default_spec(spec)

Register a Gem::Specification for default gem.

Two formats for the specification are supported:

  • MRI 2.0 style, where spec.files contains unprefixed require names. The spec's filenames will be registered as-is.

  • New style, where spec.files contains files prefixed with paths from spec.require_paths. The prefixes are stripped before registering the spec's filenames. Unprefixed files are omitted.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1261
def register_default_spec(spec)
  new_format = Gem.default_gems_use_full_paths? || spec.require_paths.any? {|path| spec.files.any? {|f| f.start_with? path } }

  if new_format
    prefix_group = spec.require_paths.map {|f| f + "/"}.join("|")
    prefix_pattern = /^(#{prefix_group})/
  end

  suffix_pattern = /#{Regexp.union(Gem.suffixes)}\z/

  spec.files.each do |file|
    if new_format
      file = file.sub(prefix_pattern, "")
      next unless $~
    end

    @path_to_default_spec_map[file] = spec
    @path_to_default_spec_map[file.sub(suffix_pattern, "")] = spec
  end
end
remove_unresolved_default_spec(spec)

Remove needless Gem::Specification of default gem from unresolved default gem list

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1293
def remove_unresolved_default_spec(spec)
  spec.files.each do |file|
    @path_to_default_spec_map.delete(file)
  end
end
ruby()

The path to the running Ruby interpreter.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 915
def self.ruby
  if @ruby.nil? then
    @ruby = File.join(RbConfig::CONFIG['bindir'],
                      "#{RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_install_name']}#{RbConfig::CONFIG['EXEEXT']}")

    @ruby = "\"#{@ruby}\"" if @ruby =~ /\s/
  end

  @ruby
end
ruby_api_version()

Returns a String containing the API compatibility version of Ruby

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 929
def self.ruby_api_version
  @ruby_api_version ||= RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_version'].dup
end
ruby_version()

A Gem::Version for the currently running Ruby.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 974
def self.ruby_version
  return @ruby_version if defined? @ruby_version
  version = RUBY_VERSION.dup

  if defined?(RUBY_PATCHLEVEL) && RUBY_PATCHLEVEL != -1 then
    version << ".#{RUBY_PATCHLEVEL}"
  elsif defined?(RUBY_REVISION) then
    version << ".dev.#{RUBY_REVISION}"
  end

  @ruby_version = Gem::Version.new version
end
rubygems_version()

A Gem::Version for the currently running RubyGems

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 990
def self.rubygems_version
  return @rubygems_version if defined? @rubygems_version
  @rubygems_version = Gem::Version.new Gem::VERSION
end
sources()

Returns an Array of sources to fetch remote gems from. Uses default_sources if the sources list is empty.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 999
def self.sources
  source_list = configuration.sources || default_sources
  @sources ||= Gem::SourceList.from(source_list)
end
sources=(new_sources)

Need to be able to set the sources without calling ::sources.replace since that would cause an infinite loop.

DOC: This comment is not documentation about the method itself, it's more of a code comment about the implementation.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1011
def self.sources= new_sources
  if !new_sources
    @sources = nil
  else
    @sources = Gem::SourceList.from(new_sources)
  end
end
spec_cache_dir()
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 442
def self.spec_cache_dir
  paths.spec_cache_dir
end
suffix_pattern()

Glob pattern for require-able path suffixes.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1022
def self.suffix_pattern
  @suffix_pattern ||= "{#{suffixes.join(',')}}"
end
suffixes()

Suffixes for require-able paths.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1029
def self.suffixes
  @suffixes ||= ['',
                 '.rb',
                 *%w(DLEXT DLEXT2).map { |key|
                   val = RbConfig::CONFIG[key]
                   next unless val and not val.empty?
                   ".#{val}"
                 }
                ].compact.uniq
end
time(msg, width = 0, display = Gem.configuration.verbose)

Prints the amount of time the supplied block takes to run using the debug UI output.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1044
def self.time(msg, width = 0, display = Gem.configuration.verbose)
  now = Time.now

  value = yield

  elapsed = Time.now - now

  ui.say "%2$*1$s: %3$3.3fs" % [-width, msg, elapsed] if display

  value
end
try_activate(path)

Try to activate a gem containing path. Returns true if activation succeeded or wasn't needed because it was already activated. Returns false if it can't find the path in a gem.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 206
def self.try_activate path
  # finds the _latest_ version... regardless of loaded specs and their deps
  # if another gem had a requirement that would mean we shouldn't
  # activate the latest version, then either it would already be activated
  # or if it was ambiguous (and thus unresolved) the code in our custom
  # require will try to activate the more specific version.

  spec = Gem::Specification.find_by_path path
  return false unless spec
  return true if spec.activated?

  begin
    spec.activate
  rescue Gem::LoadError => e # this could fail due to gem dep collisions, go lax
    spec_by_name = Gem::Specification.find_by_name(spec.name)
    if spec_by_name.nil?
      raise e
    else
      spec_by_name.activate
    end
  end

  return true
end
ui()

Lazily loads DefaultUserInteraction and returns the default UI.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1059
def self.ui
  require 'rubygems/user_interaction'

  Gem::DefaultUserInteraction.ui
end
use_gemdeps(path = nil)

Looks for a gem dependency file at path and activates the gems in the file if found. If the file is not found an ArgumentError is raised.

If path is not given the RUBYGEMS_GEMDEPS environment variable is used, but if no file is found no exception is raised.

If '-' is given for path RubyGems searches up from the current working directory for gem dependency files (gem.deps.rb, Gemfile, Isolate) and activates the gems in the first one found.

You can run this automatically when rubygems starts. To enable, set the RUBYGEMS_GEMDEPS environment variable to either the path of your gem dependencies file or “-” to auto-discover in parent directories.

NOTE: Enabling automatic discovery on multiuser systems can lead to execution of arbitrary code when used from directories outside your control.

Also aliased as: detect_gemdeps
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1167
def self.use_gemdeps path = nil
  raise_exception = path

  path ||= ENV['RUBYGEMS_GEMDEPS']
  return unless path

  path = path.dup

  if path == "-" then
    Gem::Util.traverse_parents Dir.pwd do |directory|
      dep_file = GEM_DEP_FILES.find { |f| File.file?(f) }

      next unless dep_file

      path = File.join directory, dep_file
      break
    end
  end

  path.untaint

  unless File.file? path then
    return unless raise_exception

    raise ArgumentError, "Unable to find gem dependencies file at #{path}"
  end

  if USE_BUNDLER_FOR_GEMDEPS

    ENV["BUNDLE_GEMFILE"] ||= File.expand_path(path)
    require 'rubygems/user_interaction'
    Gem::DefaultUserInteraction.use_ui(ui) do
      require "bundler"
      @gemdeps = Bundler.setup
      Bundler.ui = nil
      @gemdeps.requested_specs.map(&:to_spec).sort_by(&:name)
    end

  else

    rs = Gem::RequestSet.new
    @gemdeps = rs.load_gemdeps path

    rs.resolve_current.map do |s|
      s.full_spec.tap(&:activate)
    end

  end
rescue => e
  case e
  when Gem::LoadError, Gem::UnsatisfiableDependencyError, (defined?(Bundler::GemNotFound) ? Bundler::GemNotFound : Gem::LoadError)
    warn e.message
    warn "You may need to `gem install -g` to install missing gems"
    warn ""
  else
    raise
  end
end
use_paths(home, *paths)

Use the home and paths values for ::dir and ::path. Used mainly by the unit tests to provide environment isolation.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1069
def self.use_paths(home, *paths)
  paths.flatten!
  paths.compact!
  hash = { "GEM_HOME" => home, "GEM_PATH" => paths.empty? ? home : paths.join(File::PATH_SEPARATOR) }
  hash.delete_if { |_, v| v.nil? }
  self.paths = hash
end
user_home()

The home directory for the user.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1080
def self.user_home
  @user_home ||= find_home.untaint
end
win_platform?()

Is this a windows platform?

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1087
def self.win_platform?
  if @@win_platform.nil? then
    ruby_platform = RbConfig::CONFIG['host_os']
    @@win_platform = !!WIN_PATTERNS.find { |r| ruby_platform =~ r }
  end

  @@win_platform
end
write_binary(path, data)

Safely write a file in binary mode on all platforms.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 894
def self.write_binary(path, data)
  open(path, 'wb') do |io|
    begin
      io.flock(File::LOCK_EX)
    rescue *WRITE_BINARY_ERRORS
    end
    io.write data
  end
rescue Errno::ENOLCK # NFS
  if Thread.main != Thread.current
    raise
  else
    open(path, 'wb') do |io|
      io.write data
    end
  end
end