NEWS for Ruby 2.0.0

This document is a list of user visible feature changes made between releases except for bug fixes.

Note that each entry is kept so brief that no reason behind or reference information is supplied with. For a full list of changes with all sufficient information, see the ChangeLog file.

Changes since the 1.9.3 release

Language changes

  • Added keyword arguments.

  • Added %i and %I for symbol list creation (similar to %w and %W).

  • Default source encoding is changed to UTF-8. (was US-ASCII)

  • No warning for unused variables starting with '_'

Core classes updates (outstanding ones only)

  • ARGF

    • added method:

      • added ARGF#codepoints and ARGF#each_codepoint, like the corresponding methods for IO.

  • Array

  • Enumerable

  • Enumerator

  • ENV

  • Fiber

    • incompatible changes:

      • Fiber#resume cannot resume a fiber which invokes “Fiber#transfer”.

  • File

    • extended method:

      • File.fnmatch? now expands braces in the pattern if File::FNM_EXTGLOB option is given.

  • GC

    • improvements:

      • introduced the bitmap marking which suppresses to copy a memory page with Copy-on-Write.

      • introduced the non-recursive marking which avoids unexpected stack overflow.

  • GC::Profiler

  • Hash

  • IO

    • deprecated methods:

      • IO#lines, bytes, chars and codepoints are deprecated.

  • Kernel

    • added method:

      • added Kernel#Hash conversion method like Array() or Float().

      • added Kernel#__dir__ which returns the absolute path of the directory of the file from which this method is called.

      • added Kernel#caller_locations which returns an array of frame information objects.

    • extended method:

      • Kernel#warn accepts multiple args in like puts.

      • Kernel#caller accepts second optional argument `n' which specify required caller size.

      • Kernel#to_enum and enum_for accept a block for lazy size evaluation.

    • incompatible changes:

      • system() and exec() closes non-standard file descriptors (The default of :close_others option is changed to true by default.)

      • respond_to? against a protected method now returns false unless the second argument is true.

      • __callee__ has returned to the original behavior, and now returns the called name but not the original name in an aliased method.

      • Kernel#inspect does not call to_s anymore (it used to call redefined to_s).

  • LoadError

    • added method:

      • added LoadError#path method to return the file name that could not be loaded.

  • Module

    • added method:

      • added Module#prepend which is similar to Module#include, however a method in the prepended module overrides the corresponding method in the prepending module.

      • added Module.prepended and Module.prepend_features, similar to included and append_features.

      • added Module#refine, which extends a class or module locally.

    • extended method:

  • Mutex

    • added method:

      • added Mutex#owned? which returns the mutex is held by current thread or not. [experimental]

    • incompatible changes:

      • Mutex#lock, Mutex#unlock, Mutex#try_lock, Mutex#synchronize and Mutex#sleep are no longer allowed to be used from trap handler and raise a ThreadError in such case.

      • Mutex#sleep may spurious wakeup. Check after wakeup.

  • NilClass

    • added method:

      • added nil.to_h which returns {}

  • ObjectSpace::WeakMap

    • new low level class to hold weak references to objects.

  • Proc

    • incompatible change:

      • removed Proc#== and eql? so two procs are == only when they are the same object.

  • Process

    • added method:

      • added getsid for getting session id (unix only).

  • Range

  • RubyVM (MRI specific)

    • added RubyVM::InstructionSequence.of to get the instruction sequence from a method or a block.

    • added RubyVM::InstructionSequence#path, absolute_path, label, base_label and first_lineno to retrieve information from where the instruction sequence was defined.

    • added Environment variables to specify stack usage:

      • RUBY_THREAD_VM_STACK_SIZE: vm stack size used at thread creation. default: 128KB (32bit CPU) or 256KB (64bit CPU).

      • RUBY_THREAD_MACHINE_STACK_SIZE: machine stack size used at thread creation. default: 512KB or 1024KB.

      • RUBY_FIBER_VM_STACK_SIZE: vm stack size used at fiber creation. default: 64KB or 128KB.

      • RUBY_FIBER_MACHINE_STACK_SIZE: machine stack size used at fiber creation. default: 256KB or 512KB.

      These variables are checked only at launched time.

    • added constant DEFAULT_PARAMS to get above default parameters.

  • Signal

  • String

    • added method:

      • added String#b returning a copied string whose encoding is ASCII-8BIT.

    • change return value:

  • Struct

    • added method:

      • added Struct#to_h returning values with keys corresponding to the instance variable names.

  • Thread

  • Time

    • change return value:

      • Time#to_s now returns US-ASCII encoding instead of BINARY.

  • TracePoint

    • new class. This class is replacement of set_trace_func. Easy to use and efficient implementation.

  • toplevel

    • added method:

      • added main.define_method which defines a global function.

      • added main.using, which imports refinements into the current file or eval string. [experimental]

Core classes compatibility issues (excluding feature bug fixes)

Stdlib updates (outstanding ones only)

  • cgi

  • CSV

    • Removed CSV::dump and CSV::load to protect users from dangerous serialization vulnerability

  • iconv

  • io/console

    • new methods:

      • added IO#cooked which sets the terminal to cooked mode within the given block.

      • added IO#cooked! which sets the terminal to cooked.

    • extended method:

  • io/wait

  • json

    • updated to 1.7.7.

  • net/http

    • new features:

      • Proxies are now automatically detected from the http_proxy environment variable. See for details.

      • gzip and deflate compression are now requested for all requests by default. See Net::HTTP for details.

      • SSL sessions are now reused across connections for a single instance. This speeds up connection by using a previously negotiated session.

      • Requests may be created from a URI which sets the request_uri and host header of the request (but does not change the host connected to).

      • Responses contain the URI requested which allows easier implementation of redirect following.

    • new methods:

    • extended method:

      • Net::HTTP#connect uses local_host and local_port if specified.

  • net/imap

  • objspace

  • openssl

    • Consistently raise an error when trying to encode nil values. All instances of OpenSSL::ASN1::Primitive now raise TypeError when calling to_der on an instance whose value is nil. All instances of OpenSSL::ASN1::Constructive raise NoMethodError in the same case. Constructing such values is still permitted.

    • TLS 1.1 & 1.2 support by setting OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#ssl_version to :TLSv1_2, :TLSv1_2_server, :TLSv1_2_client or :TLSv1_1, :TLSv1_1_server :TLSv1_1_client. The version being effectively used can be queried with OpenSSL::SSL#ssl_version. Furthermore, it is also possible to blacklist the new TLS versions with OpenSSL::SSL:OP_NO_TLSv1_1 and OpenSSL::SSL::OP_NO_TLSv1_2.

    • Added OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#renegotiation_cb. A user-defined callback may be set which gets called whenever a new handshake is negotiated. This also allows to programmatically decline (client) renegotiation attempts.

    • Support for “0/n” splitting of records as BEAST mitigation via OpenSSL::SSL::OP_DONT_INSERT_EMPTY_FRAGMENTS.

    • The default options for OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext have changed to OpenSSL::SSL::OP_ALL & ~OpenSSL::SSL::OP_DONT_INSERT_EMPTY_FRAGMENTS instead of OpenSSL::SSL::OP_ALL only. This enables the countermeasure for the BEAST attack by default.

    • OpenSSL requires passwords for decrypting PEM-encoded files to be at least four characters long. This led to awkward situations where an export with a password with fewer than four characters was possible, but accessing the file afterwards failed. OpenSSL::PKey::RSA, OpenSSL::PKey::DSA and OpenSSL::PKey::EC therefore now enforce the same check when exporting a private key to PEM with a password - it has to be at least four characters long.

    • SSL/TLS support for the Next Protocol Negotiation extension. Supported with OpenSSL 1.0.1 and higher.

    • OpenSSL::OPENSSL_FIPS allows client applications to detect whether OpenSSL is FIPS-enabled. OpenSSL.fips_mode= allows turning on and off FIPS mode manually in order to adapt to situations where FIPS mode would be an explicit requirement.

    • Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) is supported via Cipher#auth_data= and Cipher#auth_tag/Cipher#auth_tag=. Currently (OpenSSL 1.0.1c), only GCM mode is supported.

  • ostruct

  • pathname

    • extended method:

  • rake

  • RDoc

    • RDoc has been updated to version 4.0

      This version is largely backwards-compatible with previous rdoc versions. The most notable change is an update to the ri data format (ri data must be regenerated for gems shared across rdoc versions). Further API changes are internal and won't affect most users.

      Notable changes include:

      • Page support for ri. Try `ri ruby:` for a list of pages in ruby or `ri ruby:syntax/literals` for the syntax documentation for literals.

        This also works for gems such as `ri rspec:README` for the rspec gem's README file.

      • Markdown support. See ri RDoc::Markdown for details.

      See for a full list of changes in rdoc 4.0.

  • resolv

  • rexml

    • REXML::Document#write supports Hash arguments.

    • REXML::Document#write supports new :encoding option. It changes XML document encoding. Without :encoding option, encoding in XML declaration is used for XML document encoding.

  • RubyGems

    • Updated to 2.0.0

      RubyGems 2.0.0 features the following improvements:

      • Improved support for default gems shipping with ruby 2.0.0+

      • A gem can have arbitrary metadata through Gem::Specification#metadata

      • `gem search` now defaults to –remote and is anchored like gem list.

      • Added –document to replace –rdoc and –ri. Use –no-document to disable documentation, –document=rdoc to only generate rdoc.

      • Only ri-format documentation is generated by default.

      • `gem server` uses RDoc::Servlet from RDoc 4.0 to generate HTML documentation.

      For an expanded list of updates and bug fixes see:

  • shellwords

    • Shellwords#shellescape now stringifies the given object using to_s.

    • Shellwords#shelljoin accepts non-string objects in the given array, each of which is stringified using to_s.

  • stringio

    • deprecated methods:

  • syslog

  • tmpdir

  • yaml

    • Syck has been removed. YAML now completely depends on libyaml being installed.

    • libyaml is now bundled with ruby, for cases where the library is not installed locally.

  • zlib

    • Added streaming support for Zlib::Inflate and Zlib::Deflate. This allows processing of a stream without the use of large amounts of memory.

    • Added support for the new deflate strategies Zlib::RLE and Zlib::FIXED.

    • Zlib streams are now processed without the GVL. This allows gzip, zlib and deflate streams to be processed in parallel.

    • deprecated methods:

Stdlib compatibility issues (excluding feature bug fixes)

  • OpenStruct new methods can conflict with custom attributes named “each_pair”, “eql?”, “hash” or “to_h”.

  • Dir.mktmpdir in lib/tmpdir.rb

    See above.

C API updates

  • NUM2SHORT() and NUM2USHORT() added. They are similar to NUM2INT, but short.

  • rb_newobj_of() and NEWOBJ_OF() added. They create a new object of a given class.