Methods
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Instance Public methods
base64(n=nil)

SecureRandom.base64 generates a random base64 string.

The argument n specifies the length, in bytes, of the random number to be generated. The length of the result string is about 4/3 of n.

If n is not specified or is nil, 16 is assumed. It may be larger in the future.

The result may contain A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “+”, “/” and “=”.

p SecureRandom.base64 #=> "/2BuBuLf3+WfSKyQbRcc/A=="
p SecureRandom.base64 #=> "6BbW0pxO0YENxn38HMUbcQ=="

If a secure random number generator is not available, NotImplementedError is raised.

See RFC 3548 for the definition of base64.

# File lib/securerandom.rb, line 137
def base64(n=nil)
  [random_bytes(n)].pack("m*").delete("\n")
end
hex(n=nil)

SecureRandom.hex generates a random hexadecimal string.

The argument n specifies the length, in bytes, of the random number to be generated. The length of the resulting hexadecimal string is twice of n.

If n is not specified or is nil, 16 is assumed. It may be larger in the future.

The result may contain 0-9 and a-f.

p SecureRandom.hex #=> "eb693ec8252cd630102fd0d0fb7c3485"
p SecureRandom.hex #=> "91dc3bfb4de5b11d029d376634589b61"

If a secure random number generator is not available, NotImplementedError is raised.

# File lib/securerandom.rb, line 116
def hex(n=nil)
  random_bytes(n).unpack("H*")[0]
end
random_bytes(n=nil)

SecureRandom.random_bytes generates a random binary string.

The argument n specifies the length of the result string.

If n is not specified or is nil, 16 is assumed. It may be larger in future.

The result may contain any byte: “x00” - “xff”.

p SecureRandom.random_bytes #=> "\xD8\\\xE0\xF4\r\xB2\xFC*WM\xFF\x83\x18\xF45\xB6"
p SecureRandom.random_bytes #=> "m\xDC\xFC/\a\x00Uf\xB2\xB2P\xBD\xFF6S\x97"

If a secure random number generator is not available, NotImplementedError is raised.

# File lib/securerandom.rb, line 96
def random_bytes(n=nil)
  n = n ? n.to_int : 16
  gen_random(n)
end
random_number(*args)
static VALUE
rand_random_number(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    rb_random_t *rnd = try_get_rnd(obj);
    VALUE v = rand_random(argc, argv, obj, rnd);
    if (NIL_P(v)) v = rand_random(0, 0, obj, rnd);
    else if (!v) invalid_argument(argv[0]);
    return v;
}
urlsafe_base64(n=nil, padding=false)

SecureRandom.urlsafe_base64 generates a random URL-safe base64 string.

The argument n specifies the length, in bytes, of the random number to be generated. The length of the result string is about 4/3 of n.

If n is not specified or is nil, 16 is assumed. It may be larger in the future.

The boolean argument padding specifies the padding. If it is false or nil, padding is not generated. Otherwise padding is generated. By default, padding is not generated because “=” may be used as a URL delimiter.

The result may contain A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “-” and “_”. “=” is also used if padding is true.

p SecureRandom.urlsafe_base64 #=> "b4GOKm4pOYU_-BOXcrUGDg"
p SecureRandom.urlsafe_base64 #=> "UZLdOkzop70Ddx-IJR0ABg"

p SecureRandom.urlsafe_base64(nil, true) #=> "i0XQ-7gglIsHGV2_BNPrdQ=="
p SecureRandom.urlsafe_base64(nil, true) #=> "-M8rLhr7JEpJlqFGUMmOxg=="

If a secure random number generator is not available, NotImplementedError is raised.

See RFC 3548 for the definition of URL-safe base64.

# File lib/securerandom.rb, line 167
def urlsafe_base64(n=nil, padding=false)
  s = [random_bytes(n)].pack("m*")
  s.delete!("\n")
  s.tr!("+/", "-_")
  s.delete!("=") unless padding
  s
end
uuid()
# SecureRandom.random_number generates a random number.
#
# If a positive integer is given as _n_,
# +SecureRandom.random_number+ returns an integer, such that:
# +0 <= SecureRandom.random_number(n) < n+.
#
#   p SecureRandom.random_number(100) #=> 15
#   p SecureRandom.random_number(100) #=> 88
#
# If 0 is given or an argument is not given,
# +SecureRandom.random_number+ returns a float, such that:
# +0.0 <= SecureRandom.random_number() < 1.0+.
#
#   p SecureRandom.random_number #=> 0.596506046187744
#   p SecureRandom.random_number #=> 0.350621695741409
#
def random_number(n=0)
  if 0 < n
    if defined? OpenSSL::BN
      OpenSSL::BN.rand_range(n).to_i
    else
      hex = n.to_s(16)
      hex = '0' + hex if (hex.length & 1) == 1
      bin = [hex].pack("H*")
      mask = bin[0].ord
      mask |= mask >> 1
      mask |= mask >> 2
      mask |= mask >> 4
      begin
        rnd = random_bytes(bin.length)
        rnd[0] = (rnd[0].ord & mask).chr
      end until rnd < bin
      rnd.unpack("H*")[0].hex
    end
  else
    # assumption: Float::MANT_DIG <= 64
    if defined? OpenSSL::BN
      i64 = OpenSSL::BN.rand(64, -1).to_i
    else
      i64 = random_bytes(8).unpack("Q")[0]
    end
    Math.ldexp(i64 >> (64-Float::MANT_DIG), -Float::MANT_DIG)
  end
end

# SecureRandom.uuid generates a random v4 UUID (Universally Unique IDentifier). # # p SecureRandom.uuid #=> “2d931510-d99f-494a-8c67-87feb05e1594” # p SecureRandom.uuid #=> “bad85eb9-0713-4da7-8d36-07a8e4b00eab” # p SecureRandom.uuid #=> “62936e70-1815-439b-bf89-8492855a7e6b” # # The version 4 UUID is purely random (except the version). # It doesn't contain meaningful information such as MAC addresses, timestamps, etc. # # The result contains 122 random bits (15.25 random bytes). # # See RFC 4122 for details of UUID. #

# File lib/securerandom.rb, line 235
def uuid
  ary = random_bytes(16).unpack("NnnnnN")
  ary[2] = (ary[2] & 0x0fff) | 0x4000
  ary[3] = (ary[3] & 0x3fff) | 0x8000
  "%08x-%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x%08x" % ary
end