• Correctly escape PostgreSQL arrays.

    Fixes: CVE-2014-0080

Rails 4.0.2 (December 02, 2013)

No changes

Rails 4.0.1 (November 01, 2013)

  • NullRelation#plucktakes a list of columns

    The method signature in NullRelationwas updated to mimic that in Calculations.

    Derek Prior

  • scope_chainshould not be mutated for other reflections.

    Currently scope_chainuses same array for building different scope_chainfor different associations. During processing these arrays are sometimes mutated and because of in-place mutation the changed scope_chainimpacts other reflections.

    Fix is to dup the value before adding to the scope_chain.

    Fixes #3882.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Prevent the inversed association from being reloaded on save.

    Fixes #9499.

    Dmitry Polushkin

  • Relation#orderquotes the column name if you pass a Symbol. Fixes #11870.


    # Before
    Post.order(:id).to_sql == '... ORDER BY "posts".id ASC'
    # After
    Post.order(:id).to_sql == '... ORDER BY "posts"."id" ASC'

    Yves Senn

  • Generate subquery for Relationif it passed as array condition for wheremethod.


    # Before
    Blog.where('id in (?)', Blog.where(id: 1))
    # =>  SELECT "blogs".* FROM "blogs"  WHERE "blogs"."id" = 1
    # =>  SELECT "blogs".* FROM "blogs"  WHERE (id IN (1))
    # After
    Blog.where('id in (?)', Blog.where(id: 1).select(:id))
    # =>  SELECT "blogs".* FROM "blogs"
    #     WHERE "blogs"."id" IN (SELECT "blogs"."id" FROM "blogs"  WHERE "blogs"."id" = 1)

    Fixes #12415.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • For missed association exception message which is raised in ActiveRecord::Associations::Preloaderclass added owner record class name in order to simplify to find problem code.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Fixes bug when using includes combined with select, the select statement was overwritten.

    Fixes #11773.

    Edo Balvers

  • Objects instantiated using a null relationship will now retain the attributes of the where clause.

    Fixes #11676, #11675, #11376.

    Paul Nikitochkin, Peter Brown, Nthalk

  • Fixed ActiveRecord::Associations::CollectionAssociation#find when using has_manyassociation with :inverse_of and finding an array of one element, it should return an array of one element too.


  • Callbacks on has_many should access the in memory parent if a inverse_of is set.


  • Migration dump UUID default functions to schema.rb.

    Fixes #10751.


  • Fixed a bug in ActiveRecord::Associations::CollectionAssociation#find_by_scan when using has_manyassociation with :inverse_of option and UUID primary key.

    Fixes #10450.


  • Fix: joins association, with defined in the scope block constraints by using several where constraints and at least of them is not Arel::Nodes::Equality, generates invalid SQL expression.

    Fixes: #11963

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Make possible to run SQLite rake tasks without the Rails constant defined.

    Damien Mathieu

  • Allow Relation#from to accept other relations with bind values.

    Ryan Wallace

  • Make find_in_batchesand find_eachwork without a logger.

    Dmitry Polushkin

  • Fix inserts with prepared statements disabled.

    Fixes #12023.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Setting a has_one association on a new record no longer causes an empty transaction.

    Dylan Thacker-Smith

  • Fix AR::Relation#mergesometimes failing to preserve readonly(false)flag.


  • PostgreSQL adapter recognizes negative money values formatted with parentheses (eg. ($1.25) # => -1.25)). Fixes #11899.

    • Yves Senn*

  • Do not load all child records for inverse case.

    currently post.comments.find(Comment.first.id)would load all comments for the given post to set the inverse association.

    This has a huge performance penalty. Because if post has 100k records and all these 100k records would be loaded in memory even though the comment id was supplied.

    Fix is to use in-memory records only if loaded? is true. Otherwise load the records using full sql.

    Fixes #10509.

    Neeraj Singh

  • ActiveRecord::FinderMethods#exists?returns true/ falsein all cases.

    Xavier Noria

  • Load fixtures from linked folders.

    Kassio Borges

  • Create a directory for sqlite3 file if not present on the system.

    Richard Schneeman

  • Removed redundant override of xmlcolumn definition for PG, in order to use xmlcolumn type instead of text.

    Paul Nikitochkin, Michael Nikitochkin

  • Revert ActiveRecord::Relation#orderchange that make new order prepend the old one.


    User.order("name asc").order("created_at desc")
    # SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY created_at desc, name asc


    User.order("name asc").order("created_at desc")
    # SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY name asc, created_at desc

    This also affects order defined in default_scopeor any kind of associations.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • When using optimistic locking, updatewas not passing the column to quote_valueto allow the connection adapter to properly determine how to quote the value. This was affecting certain databases that use specific column types.

    Fixes #6763.

    Alfred Wong

  • change_columnfor PostgreSQL adapter respects the :arrayoption.

    Yves Senn

  • Fixes bug introduced by #3329. Now, when autosaving associations, deletions happen before inserts and saves. This prevents a 'duplicate unique value' database error that would occur if a record being created had the same value on a unique indexed field as that of a record being destroyed.

    Johnny Holton

  • Flatten merged join values before building the joins.

    While joining values special treatment is given to string values. By flattening the array it ensures that string values are detected as strings and not arrays.

    Fixes #10669.

    Neeraj Singh and iwiznia

  • Remove extra select and update queries on save/ touch/ destroyActive Record model with belongs to reflection with option touch: true.

    Fixes #11288.

    Paul Nikitochkin

  • Support array as root element in JSON fields.

    Alexey Noskov & Francesco Rodriguez

  • Apply default scope when joining associations. For example:

    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      default_scope -> { where published: true }
    class Comment
      belongs_to :post

    When calling Comment.joins(:post), we expect to receive only comments on published posts, since that is the default scope for posts.

    Before this change, the default scope from Postwas not applied, so we'd get comments on unpublished posts.

    Jon Leighton

  • inspecton Active Record model classes does not initiate a new connection. This means that calling inspect, when the database is missing, will no longer raise an exception.

    Fixes #10936.


    Author.inspect # => "Author(no database connection)"

    Yves Senn

  • Fix mysql2 adapter raises the correct exception when executing a query on a closed connection.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix the :primary_keyoption for has_many associations.

    Fixes #10693.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix bug where tiny types are incorectly coerced as booleand when the length is more than 1.

    Fixes #10620.

    Aaron Patterson

  • Also support extensions in PostgreSQL 9.1. This feature has been supported since 9.1.


  • Deprecate ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#distinct, as it is no longer used by internals.

    *Ben Woosley#

  • Remove not needed bind variables. Port of commit #5082345.

    Fixes #10958.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Confirm a record has not already been destroyed before decrementing counter cache.

    Ben Tucker

  • Fixed a bug in ActiveRecord#sanitize_sql_hash_for_conditions in which self.classis an argument to PredicateBuilder#build_from_hashcausing PredicateBuilderto call non-existent method Class#reflect_on_association.

    Zach Ohlgren

  • While removing index if column option is missing then raise IrreversibleMigration exception.

    Following code should raise IrreversibleMigration. But the code was failing since options is an array and not a hash.

    def change
      change_table :users do |t|
        t.remove_index [:name, :email]

    Fix was to check if the options is a Hash before operating on it.

    Fixes #10419.

    Neeraj Singh

Rails 4.0.0 (June 25, 2013)

  • Fix add_columnwith arrayoption when using PostgreSQL. Fixes #10432

  • Do not overwrite manually built records during one-to-one nested attribute assignment

    For one-to-one nested associations, if you build the new (in-memory) child object yourself before assignment, then the NestedAttributes module will not overwrite it, e.g.:

    class Member < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_one :avatar
      accepts_nested_attributes_for :avatar
      def avatar
        super || build_avatar(width: 200)
    member = Member.new
    member.avatar_attributes = {icon: 'sad'}
    member.avatar.width # => 200

    Olek Janiszewski

  • fixes bug introduced by #3329. Now, when autosaving associations, deletions happen before inserts and saves. This prevents a 'duplicate unique value' database error that would occur if a record being created had the same value on a unique indexed field as that of a record being destroyed.

    Adam Anderson

  • Fix pending migrations error when loading schema and ActiveRecord::Base.table_name_prefixis not blank.

    Call assume_migrated_upto_versionon connection to prevent it from first being picked up in method_missing.

    In the base class, Migration, method_missing expects the argument to be a table name, and calls proper_table_nameon the arguments before sending to connection. If table_name_prefixor table_name_suffixis used, the schema version changes to prefix_version_suffix, breaking rake test:prepare .

    Fixes #10411.

    Kyle Stevens

  • Mute psqloutput when running rake db:schema:load.

    Godfrey Chan

  • Trigger a save on has_one association=(associate)when the associate contents have changed.

    Fix #8856.

    Chris Thompson

  • Allow to use databases.rake tasks without having Rails.application.

    Piotr Sarnacki

  • Fix a SystemStackErrorproblem when using time zone aware or serialized attributes. In current implementation, we reuse column_typesargument when initiating an instance. If an instance has serialized or time zone aware attributes, column_typesis wrapped multiple times in decorate_columnsmethod. Thus the above error occurs.

    Dan Erikson & kennyj

  • Fix for a regression bug in which counter cache columns were not being updated when record was pushed into a has_many association. For example:

    Post.first.comments << Comment.create

    Fixes #3891.

    Matthew Robertson

  • If a model was instantiated from the database using select, respond_to?returns false for non-selected attributes. For example:

    post = Post.select(:title).first
    post.respond_to?(:body) # => false
    post = Post.select('title as post_title').first
    post.respond_to?(:title) # => false

    Fixes #4208.

    Neeraj Singh

  • Run rake migrate:down& rake migrate:upin transaction if database supports.

    Alexander Bondarev

  • 0xprefix must be added when assigning hexadecimal string into bitcolumn in PostgreSQL.


  • Added Statement Cache to allow the caching of a single statement. The cache works by duping the relation returned from yielding a statement, which allows skipping the AST building phase for following executes. The cache returns results in array format.


    cache = ActiveRecord::StatementCache.new do
      Book.where(name: "my book").limit(100)
    books = cache.execute

    The solution attempts to get closer to the speed of find_by_sqlbut still maintaining the expressiveness of the Active Record queries.

    Olli Rissanen

  • Preserve context while merging relations with join information.

    class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :post
    class Author < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_many :posts
    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :author
      has_many :comments

    Comment.joins(:post).merge(Post.joins(:author).merge(Author.where(:name => "Joe Blogs"))).allwould fail with ActiveRecord::ConfigurationError: Association named 'author' was not found on Comment.

    It is failing because allis being called on relation which looks like this after all the merging: {:joins=>[:post, :author], :where=>[#<Arel::Nodes::Equality: ....}. In this relation all the context that Postwas joined with Authoris lost and hence the error that authorwas not found on Comment.

    The solution is to build JoinAssociationwhen two relations with join information are being merged. And later while building the Arel use the previously built JoinAssociationrecord in JoinDependency#graftto build the right from clause. Fixes #3002.

    Jared Armstrong and Neeraj Singh

  • default_scopes?is deprecated. Check for default_scopes.empty?instead.

    Agis Anastasopoulos

  • Default values for PostgreSQL bigint types now get parsed and dumped to the schema correctly.

    Erik Peterson

  • Fix associations with :inverse_ofoption when building association with a block. Inside the block the parent object was different then after the block.


    parent.association.build do |child|
      child.parent.equal?(parent) # false
    # vs
    child = parent.association.build
    child.parent.equal?(parent) # true

    Michal Cichra

  • has_manyusing :throughnow obeys the order clause mentioned in through association. Fixes #10016.

    Neeraj Singh

  • belongs_to :touchbehavior now touches old association when transitioning to new association.

    class Passenger < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :car, touch: true
    car_1 = Car.create
    car_2 = Car.create
    passenger = Passenger.create car: car_1
    passenger.car = car_2

    Previously only car_2 would be touched. Now both car_1 and car_2 will be touched.

    Adam Gamble

  • Extract and deprecate Firebird / Sqlserver / Oracle database tasks, because These tasks should be supported by 3rd-party adapter.


  • Allow ActiveRecord::Base.connection_handlerto have thread affinity and be settable, this effectively allows Active Record to be used in a multithreaded setup with multiple connections to multiple databases.

    Sam Saffron

  • rename_columnpreserves auto_incrementin MySQL migrations. Fixes #3493.

    Vipul A M

  • PostgreSQL geometric type point is now supported by Active Record. Fixes #7324.

    Martin Schuerrer

  • Add support for concurrent indexing in PostgreSQL adapter via the algorithm: :concurrentlyoption.

    add_index(:people, :last_name, algorithm: :concurrently)

    Also add support for MySQL index algorithms ( COPY, INPLACE, DEFAULT) via the :algorithm option.

    add_index(:people, :last_name, algorithm: :copy) # or :inplace/:default

    Dan McClain

  • Add support for fulltext and spatial indexes on MySQL tables with MyISAM database engine via the type: 'FULLTEXT'/ type: 'SPATIAL' option.

    add_index(:people, :last_name, type: 'FULLTEXT')
    add_index(:people, :last_name, type: 'SPATIAL')

    Ken Mazaika

  • Add an add_indexoverride in PostgreSQL adapter and MySQL adapter to allow custom index type support. Fixes #6101.

    add_index(:wikis, :body, :using => 'gin')

    Stefan Huberand Doabit

  • After extraction of mass-assignment attributes (which protects [id, type] by default) we can pass id to update_attributesand it will update another record because id will be used in where statement. We never have to change id in where statement because we try to set/replace fields for already loaded record but we have to try to set new id for that record.

    Dmitry Vorotilin

  • Models with multiple counter cache associations now update correctly on destroy. See #7706.

    Ian Young

  • If :inverse_ofis true on an association, then when one calls find()on the association, Active Record will first look through the in-memory objects in the association for a particular id. Then, it will go to the DB if it is not found. This is accomplished by calling find_by_scanin collection associations whenever options[:inverse_of]is not nil. Fixes #9470.

    John Wang

  • rake db:createdoes not change permissions of the MySQL root user. Fixes #8079.

    Yves Senn

  • The length of the versioncolumn in the schema_migrationstable created by the mysql2 adapter is 191 if the encoding is "utf8mb4".

    The "utf8" encoding in MySQL has support for a maximum of 3 bytes per character, and only contains characters from the BMP. The recently added utf8mb4 encoding extends the support to four bytes. As of this writing, said encoding is supported in the betas of the mysql2gem.

    Setting the encoding to "utf8mb4" has a few implications. This change addresses the max length for indexes, which is 191 instead of 255.

    Xavier Noria

  • Counter caches on associations will now stay valid when attributes are updated (not just when records are created or destroyed), for example, when calling update_attributes. The following code now works:

    class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :post, counter_cache: true
    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_many :comments
    post = Post.create
    comment = Comment.create
    post.comments << comment
    post.save.reload.comments_count # => 1
    comment.update_attributes(post_id: nil)
    post.save.reload.comments_count # => 0

    Updating the id of a belongs_toobject with the id of a new object will also keep the count accurate.

    John Wang

  • Referencing join tables implicitly was deprecated. There is a possibility that these deprecation warnings are shown even if you don't make use of that feature. You can now disable the feature entirely. Fixes #9712.


    # in your configuration
    config.active_record.disable_implicit_join_references = true
    # or directly
    ActiveRecord::Base.disable_implicit_join_references = true

    Yves Senn

  • The :distinctoption for Relation#countis deprecated. You should use Relation#distinctinstead.


    # Before
    Post.select(:author_name).count(distinct: true)
    # After

    Yves Senn

  • Rename Relation#uniqto Relation#distinct. #uniqis still available as an alias but we encourage to use #distinctinstead. Also Relation#uniq_valueis aliased to Relation#distinct_value, this is a temporary solution and you should migrate to distinct_value.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix quoting for sqlite migrations using copy_table_contents with binary columns.

    These would fail with "SQLite3::SQLException: unrecognized token" because the column was not being passed to quoteso the data was not quoted correctly.

    Matthew M. Boedicker

  • Promotes change_column_nullto the migrations API. This macro sets/removes NOT NULLconstraints, and accepts an optional argument to replace existing NULLs if needed. The adapters for SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and (at least) Oracle, already implement this method.

    Xavier Noria

  • Uniqueness validation allows you to pass :conditionsto limit the constraint lookup.


    validates_uniqueness_of :title, conditions: -> { where('approved = ?', true) }

    Mattias Pfeiffer + Yves Senn

  • connectionis deprecated as an instance method. This allows end-users to have a connectionmethod on their models without clashing with Active Record internals.

    Ben Moss

  • When copying migrations, preserve their magic comments and content encoding.

    OZAWA Sakuro

  • Fix subclass_from_attrswhen eager_loadis false. It cannot find subclass because all classes are loaded automatically when it needs.

    Dmitry Vorotilin

  • When :nameoption is provided to remove_index, use it if there is no index by the conventional name.

    For example, previously if an index was removed like so remove_index :values, column: :value, name: 'a_different_name'the generated SQL would not contain the specified index name, and hence the migration would fail. Fixes #8858.

    Ezekiel Smithburg

  • Created block to by-pass the prepared statement bindings. This will allow to compose fragments of large SQL statements to avoid multiple round-trips between Ruby and the DB.


    sql = Post.connection.unprepared_statement do

    Cédric Fabianski

  • Change the semantics of combining scopes to be the same as combining class methods which return scopes. For example:

    class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      scope :active,   -> { where state: 'active' }
      scope :inactive, -> { where state: 'inactive' }
    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      def self.active
        where state: 'active'
      def self.inactive
        where state: 'inactive'
    ### BEFORE ###
    User.where(state: 'active').where(state: 'inactive')
    # => SELECT * FROM users WHERE state = 'active' AND state = 'inactive'
    # => SELECT * FROM users WHERE state = 'inactive'
    # => SELECT * FROM posts WHERE state = 'active' AND state = 'inactive'
    ### AFTER ###
    # => SELECT * FROM posts WHERE state = 'active' AND state = 'inactive'

    Before this change, invoking a scope would merge it into the current scope and return the result. Relation#mergeapplies "last where wins" logic to de-duplicate the conditions, but this lead to confusing and inconsistent behaviour. This fixes that.

    If you really do want the "last where wins" logic, you can opt-in to it like so:


    Fixes #7365.

    Neeraj Singhand Jon Leighton

  • Expand #cache_keyto consult all relevant updated timestamps.

    Previously only updated_atcolumn was checked, now it will consult other columns that received updated timestamps on save, such as updated_on. When multiple columns are present it will use the most recent timestamp. Fixes #9033.

    Brendon Murphy

  • Throw NotImplementedErrorwhen trying to instantiate ActiveRecord::Baseor an abstract class.

    Aaron Weiner

  • Warn when rake db:structure:dumpwith a MySQL database and mysqldumpis not in the PATH or fails. Fixes #9518.

    Yves Senn

  • Remove connection#structure_dump, which is no longer used. Yves Senn

  • Make it possible to execute migrations without a transaction even if the database adapter supports DDL transactions. Fixes #9483.


    class ChangeEnum < ActiveRecord::Migration
      def up
        execute "ALTER TYPE model_size ADD VALUE 'new_value'"

    Yves Senn

  • Assigning "0.0" to a nullable numeric column does not make it dirty. Fixes #9034.


    product = Product.create price: 0.0
    product.price = '0.0'
    product.changed? # => false (this used to return true)
    product.changes # => {} (this used to return { price: [0.0, 0.0] })

    Yves Senn

  • Added functionality to unscope relations in a relations chain. For instance, if you are passed in a chain of relations as follows:

    User.where(name: "John").order('id DESC')

    but you want to get rid of order, then this feature allows you to do:

    User.where(name: "John").order('id DESC').unscope(:order)
        == User.where(name: "John")

    The .unscope() function is more general than the .except() method because .except() only works on the relation it is acting on. However, .unscope() works for any relation in the entire relation chain.

    John Wang

  • PostgreSQL timestamp with time zone (timestamptz) datatype now returns a ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone instance instead of a string

    Troy Kruthoff

  • The #appendmethod for collection associations behaves like <<. #prependis not defined and <<or #appendshould be used. Fixes #7364.

    Yves Senn

  • Added support for creating a table via Rails migration generator. For example,

    rails g migration create_books title:string content:text

    will generate a migration that creates a table called books with the listed attributes, without creating a model.

    Sammy Larbi

  • Fix bug that raises the wrong exception when the exception handled by PostgreSQL adapter doesn't respond to #result. Fixes #8617.


  • Support PostgreSQL specific column types when using change_table. Fixes #9480.


    change_table :authors do |t|
      t.hstore :books
      t.json :metadata

    Yves Senn

  • Revert 408227d9c5ed7d, 'quote numeric'. This introduced some regressions.

    Steve Klabnik

  • Fix calculation of db_runtimeproperty in ActiveRecord::Railties::ControllerRuntime#cleanup_view_runtime. Previously, after raising ActionView::MissingTemplate, db_runtimewas not populated. Fixes #9215.

    Igor Fedoronchuk

  • Do not try to touch invalid (and thus not persisted) parent record for a belongs_to :parent, touch: trueassociation

    Olek Janiszewski

  • Fix when performing an ordered join query. The bug only affected queries where the order was given with a symbol. Fixes #9275.


    # This will expand the order :name to "authors".name.
    Author.joins(:books).where('books.published = 1').order(:name)
  • Fix overriding of attributes by default_scopeon ActiveRecord::Base#dup.

    Hiroshige UMINO

  • Update queries now use prepared statements.

    Olli Rissanen

  • Fixing issue #8345. Now throwing an error when one attempts to touch a new object that has not yet been persisted. For instance:


    ball = Ball.new
    ball.touch :updated_at   # => raises error

    It is not until the ball object has been persisted that it can be touched. This follows the behavior of update_column.

    John Wang

  • Preloading ordered has_many :throughassociations no longer applies invalid ordering to the :throughassociation. Fixes #8663.

    Yves Senn

  • The auto explain feature has been removed. This feature was activated by configuring config.active_record.auto_explain_threshold_in_seconds. The configuration option was deprecated and has no more effect.

    You can still use ActiveRecord::Relation#explainto see the EXPLAIN output for any given relation.

    Yves Senn

  • The :onoption for after_commitand after_rollbacknow accepts an Array of actions. Fixes #988.


    after_commit :update_cache on: [:create, :update]

    Yves Senn

  • Rename related indexes on rename_tableand rename_column. This does not affect indexes with custom names.

    Yves Senn

  • Prevent the creation of indices with too long names, which cause internal operations to fail (sqlite3 adapter only). The method allowed_index_name_lengthdefines the length limit enforced by rails. It's value defaults to index_name_lengthbut can vary per adapter. Fixes #8264.

    Yves Senn

  • Fixing issue #776.

    Memory bloat in transactions is handled by having the transaction hold only the AR objects which it absolutely needs to know about. These are the AR objects with callbacks (they need to be updated as soon as something in the transaction occurs).

    All other AR objects can be updated lazily by keeping a reference to a TransactionState object. If an AR object gets inside a transaction, then the transaction will add its TransactionState to the AR object. When the user makes a call to some attribute on an AR object (which has no callbacks) associated with a transaction, the AR object will call the sync_with_transaction_state method and make sure it is up to date with the transaction. After it has synced with the transaction state, the AR object will return the attribute that was requested.

    Most of the logic in the changes are used to handle multiple transactions, in which case the AR object has to recursively follow parent pointers of TransactionState objects.

    John Wang

  • Descriptive error message when the necessary AR adapter gem was not found. Fixes #7313.

    Yves Senn

  • Active Record now raises an error when blank arguments are passed to query methods for which blank arguments do not make sense.


    Post.includes()     # => raises error

    John Wang

  • Simplified type casting code for timezone aware attributes to use the in_time_zonemethod if it is available. This introduces a subtle change of behavior when using Dateinstances as they are directly converted to ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone instances without first being converted to Timeinstances. For example:

    # Rails 3.2 behavior
    >> Date.today.to_time.in_time_zone
    => Wed, 13 Feb 2013 07:00:00 UTC +00:00
    # Rails 4.0 behavior
    >> Date.today.in_time_zone
    => Wed, 13 Feb 2013 00:00:00 UTC +00:00

    On the plus side it now behaves the same whether you pass a Stringdate or an actual Dateinstance. For example:

    # Rails 3.2 behavior
    >> Date.civil(2013, 2, 13).to_time.in_time_zone
    => Wed, 13 Feb 2013 07:00:00 UTC +00:00
    >> Time.zone.parse("2013-02-13")
    => Wed, 13 Feb 2013 00:00:00 UTC +00:00
    # Rails 4.0 behavior
    >> Date.civil(2013, 2, 13).in_time_zone
    => Wed, 13 Feb 2013 00:00:00 UTC +00:00
    >> "2013-02-13".in_time_zone
    => Wed, 13 Feb 2013 00:00:00 UTC +00:00

    If you need the old behavior you can convert the dates to times manually. For example:

    >> Post.new(created_at: Date.today).created_at
    => Wed, 13 Feb 2013 00:00:00 UTC +00:00
    >> Post.new(created_at: Date.today.to_time).created_at
    => Wed, 13 Feb 2013 07:00:00 UTC +00:00

    Andrew White

  • Preloading has_many :throughassociations with conditions won't cache the :throughassociation. This will prevent invalid subsets to be cached. Fixes #8423.


    class User
      has_many :posts
      has_many :recent_comments, -> { where('created_at > ?', 1.week.ago) }, :through => :posts
    a_user = User.includes(:recent_comments).first
    # This is preloaded.
    # This is not preloaded, fetched now.

    Yves Senn

  • Don't run after_commitcallbacks when creating through an association if saving the record fails.

    James Miller

  • Allow store accessors to be overridden like other attribute methods, e.g.:

    class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      store :settings, accessors: [ :color, :homepage ], coder: JSON
      def color
        super || 'red'

    Sergey Nartimov

  • Quote numeric values being compared to non-numeric columns. Otherwise, in some database, the string column values will be coerced to a numeric allowing 0, 0.0 or false to match any string starting with a non-digit.


    App.where(apikey: 0) # => SELECT * FROM users WHERE apikey = '0'

    Dylan Smith

  • Schema dumper supports dumping the enabled database extensions to schema.rb(currently only supported by PostgreSQL).

    Justin George

  • The database adapters now converts the options passed thought DATABASE_URLenvironment variable to the proper Ruby types before using. For example, SQLite requires that the timeout value is an integer, and PostgreSQL requires that the prepared_statements option is a boolean. These now work as expected:



    Aaron Stone + Rafael Mendonça França

  • Relation#mergenow only overwrites where values on the LHS of the merge. Consider:

    left  = Person.where(age: [13, 14, 15])
    right = Person.where(age: [13, 14]).where(age: [14, 15])

    leftresults in the following SQL:

    WHERE age IN (13, 14, 15)

    rightresults in the following SQL:

    WHERE age IN (13, 14) AND age IN (14, 15)

    Previously, left.merge(right)would result in all but the last condition being removed:

    WHERE age IN (14, 15)

    Now it results in the LHS condition(s) for agebeing removed, but the RHS remains as it is:

    WHERE age IN (13, 14) AND age IN (14, 15)

    Jon Leighton

  • Fix handling of dirty time zone aware attributes

    Previously, when time_zone_aware_attributeswere enabled, after changing a datetime or timestamp attribute and then changing it back to the original value, changed_attributesstill tracked the attribute as changed. This caused [attribute]_changed?and changed?methods to return true incorrectly.


    in_time_zone 'Paris' do
      order = Order.new
      original_time = Time.local(2012, 10, 10)
      order.shipped_at = original_time
      order.changed? # => false
      # changing value
      order.shipped_at = Time.local(2013, 1, 1)
      order.changed? # => true
      # reverting to original value
      order.shipped_at = original_time
      order.changed? # => false, used to return true

    Lilibeth De La Cruz

  • When #countis used in conjunction with #uniqwe perform count(:distinct => true). Fixes #6865.


    relation.uniq.count # => SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT *)

    Yves Senn + Kaspar Schiess

  • PostgreSQL ranges type support. Includes: int4range, int8range, numrange, tsrange, tstzrange, daterange

    Ranges can be created with inclusive and exclusive bounds.


    create_table :Room do |t|
      t.daterange :availability
    Room.create(availability: (Date.today..Float::INFINITY))
    Room.first.availability # => Wed, 19 Sep 2012..Infinity

    One thing to note: Range class does not support exclusive lower bound.

    Alexander Grebennik

  • Added a state instance variable to each transaction. Will allow other objects to know whether a transaction has been committed or rolled back.

    John Wang

  • Collection associations #empty?always respects built records. Fixes #8879.


    widget = Widget.new
    widget.things.empty? # => false

    Yves Senn

  • Support for PostgreSQL's ltreedata type.

    Rob Worley

  • Fix undefined method to_iwhen calling newon a scope that uses an Array; Fix FloatDomainError when setting integer column to NaN. Fixes #8718, #8734, #8757.

    Jason Stirk + Tristan Harward

  • Rename update_attributesto update, keep update_attributesas an alias for updatemethod. This is a soft-deprecation for update_attributes, although it will still work without any deprecation message in 4.0 is recommended to start using updatesince update_attributeswill be deprecated and removed in future versions of Rails.

    Amparo Luna + Guillermo Iguaran

  • after_commitand after_rollbacknow validate the :onoption and raise an ArgumentErrorif it is not one of :create, :destroyor :update

    Pascal Friederich

  • Improve ways to write changemigrations, making the old up& downmethods no longer necessary.

    • The methods drop_tableand remove_columnare now reversible, as long as the necessary information is given. The method remove_columnused to accept multiple column names; instead use remove_columns(which is not reversible). The method change_tableis also reversible, as long as its block doesn't call remove, changeor change_default

    • New method reversiblemakes it possible to specify code to be run when migrating up or down. See the Guide on Migration

    • New method revertwill revert a whole migration or the given block. If migrating down, the given migration / block is run normally. See the Guide on Migration

    Attempting to revert the methods execute, remove_columnsand change_columnwill now raise an IrreversibleMigrationinstead of actually executing them without any output.

    Marc-André Lafortune

  • Serialized attributes can be serialized in integer columns. Fixes #8575.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Keep index names when using alter_tablewith sqlite3. Fixes #3489.

    Yves Senn

  • Add ability for PostgreSQL adapter to disable user triggers in disable_referential_integrity. Fixes #5523.

    Gary S. Weaver

  • Added support for validates_uniqueness_ofin PostgreSQL array columns. Fixes #8075.

    Pedro Padron

  • Allow int4range and int8range columns to be created in PostgreSQL and properly convert to/from database.

    Alexey Vasiliev aka leopard

  • Do not log the binding values for binary columns.

    Matthew M. Boedicker

  • Fix counter cache columns not updated when replacing has_many :through associations.

    Matthew Robertson

  • Recognize migrations placed in directories containing numbers and 'rb'. Fixes #8492.

    Yves Senn

  • Add ActiveRecord::Base.cache_timestamp_formatclass attribute to control the format of the timestamp value in the cache key. Defaults to :nsec. Fixes #8195.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Session variables can be set for the mysql, mysql2, and postgresqladapters in the variables: <hash>parameter in config/database.yml. The key-value pairs of this hash will be sent in a SET key = valuequery on new database connections. See also: dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/set-statement.html www.postgresql.org/docs/8.3/static/sql-set.html

    Aaron Stone

  • Allow setting of all libpq connection parameters through the PostgreSQL adapter. See also: www.postgresql.org/docs/9.2/static/libpq-connect.html#LIBPQ-PARAMKEYWORDS

    Lars Kanis

  • Allow Relation#wherewith no arguments to be chained with new notquery method.


    Developer.where.not(name: 'Aaron')

    Akira Matsuda

  • Unscope update_column(s)query to ignore default scope.

    When applying default_scopeto a class with a where clause, using update_column(s)could generate a query that would not properly update the record due to the where clause from the default_scopebeing applied to the update query.

    class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      default_scope -> { where(active: true) }
    user = User.first
    user.active = false
    user.update_column(:active, true) # => false

    In this situation we want to skip the default_scope clause and just update the record based on the primary key. With this change:

    user.update_column(:active, true) # => true

    Fixes #8436.

    Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • SQLite adapter no longer corrupts binary data if the data contains %00.

    Chris Feist

  • Fix performance problem with primary_keymethod in PostgreSQL adapter when having many schemas. Uses pg_constrainttable instead of pg_dependtable which has many records in general. Fixes #8414.


  • Do not instantiate intermediate Active Record objects when eager loading. These records caused after_findto run more than expected. Fixes #3313.

    Yves Senn

  • Add STI support to init and building associations. Allows you to do BaseClass.new(type: "SubClass")as well as parent.children.build(type: "SubClass")or parent.build_childto initialize an STI subclass. Ensures that the class name is a valid class and that it is in the ancestors of the super class that the association is expecting.

    Jason Rush

  • Observers was extracted from Active Record as rails-observers gem.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Ensure that associations take a symbol argument. Steve Klabnik

  • Fix dirty attribute checks for TimeZoneConversionwith nil and blank datetime attributes. Setting a nil datetime to a blank string should not result in a change being flagged. Fixes #8310.

    Alisdair McDiarmid

  • Prevent mass assignment to the type column of polymorphic associations when using buildFixes #8265.

    Yves Senn

  • Deprecate calling Relation#sumwith a block. To perform a calculation over the array result of the relation, use to_a.sum(&block).

    Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • Fix PostgreSQL adapter to handle BC timestamps correctly

    HistoryEvent.create!(name: "something", occured_at: Date.new(0) - 5.years)

    Bogdan Gusiev

  • When running migrations on PostgreSQL, the :limitoption for binaryand textcolumns is silently dropped. Previously, these migrations caused sql exceptions, because PostgreSQL doesn't support limits on these types.

    Victor Costan

  • Don't change STI type when calling ActiveRecord::Base#becomes. Add ActiveRecord::Base#becomes!with the previous behavior.

    See #3023 for more information.

    Thomas Hollstegge

  • rename_indexcan be used inside a change_table block.

    change_table :accounts do |t|
      t.rename_index :user_id, :account_id

    Jarek Radosz

  • #pluckcan be used on a relation with select clause. Fix #7551


    Topic.select([:approved, :id]).order(:id).pluck(:id)

    Yves Senn

  • Do not create useless database transaction when building has_oneassociation.


    User.has_one :profile

    Bogdan Gusiev

  • :counter_cacheoption for has_manyassociations to support custom named counter caches. Fixes #7993.

    Yves Senn

  • Deprecate the possibility to pass a string as third argument of add_index. Pass unique: trueinstead.

    add_index(:users, :organization_id, unique: true)

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Raise an ArgumentErrorwhen passing an invalid option to add_index.

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • Fix find_in_batchescrashing when IDs are strings and start option is not specified.

    Alexis Bernard

  • AR::Base#attributes_before_type_castnow returns unserialized values for serialized attributes.

    Nikita Afanasenko

  • Use query cache/uncache when using DATABASE_URL. Fixes #6951.


  • Fix bug where update_columnsand update_column would not let you update the primary key column.

    Henrik Nyh

  • The create_tablemethod raises an ArgumentError when the primary key column is redefined. Fixes #6378.

    Yves Senn

  • ActiveRecord::AttributeMethods#[]raises ActiveModel::MissingAttributeErrorerror if the given attribute is missing. Fixes #5433.

    class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :company
    # Before:
    person = Person.select('id').first
    person[:name]       # => nil
    person.name         # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: name
    person[:company_id] # => nil
    person.company      # => nil
    # After:
    person = Person.select('id').first
    person[:name]       # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: name
    person.name         # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: name
    person[:company_id] # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: company_id
    person.company      # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: company_id

    Francesco Rodriguez

  • Small binary fields use the VARBINARYMySQL type, instead of TINYBLOB.

    Victor Costan

  • Decode URI encoded attributes on database connection URLs.

    Shawn Veader

  • Add find_or_create_by, find_or_create_by!and find_or_initialize_bymethods to Relation.

    These are similar to the first_or_createfamily of methods, but the behaviour when a record is created is slightly different:

    User.where(first_name: 'Penélope').first_or_create

    will execute:

    User.where(first_name: 'Penélope').create

    Causing all the createcallbacks to execute within the context of the scope. This could affect queries that occur within callbacks.

    User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Penélope')

    will execute:

    User.create(first_name: 'Penélope')

    Which obviously does not affect the scoping of queries within callbacks.

    The find_or_create_byversion also reads better, frankly.

    If you need to add extra attributes during create, you can do one of:

    User.create_with(active: true).find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Jon')
    User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Jon') { |u| u.active = true }

    The first_or_createfamily of methods have been nodoc'ed in favour of this API. They may be deprecated in the future but their implementation is very small and it's probably not worth putting users through lots of annoying deprecation warnings.

    Jon Leighton

  • Fix bug with presence validation of associations. Would incorrectly add duplicated errors when the association was blank. Bug introduced in 1fab518c6a75dac5773654646eb724a59741bc13.

    Scott Willson

  • Fix bug where sum(expression) returns string '0' for no matching records. Fixes #7439

    Tim Macfarlane

  • PostgreSQL adapter correctly fetches default values when using multiple schemas and domains in a db. Fixes #7914

    Arturo Pie

  • Learn ActiveRecord::QueryMethods#order work with hash arguments

    When symbol or hash passed we convert it to Arel::Nodes::Ordering. If we pass invalid direction(like name: :DeSc) ActiveRecord::QueryMethods#order will raise an exception

    User.order(:name, email: :desc)
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY "users"."name" ASC, "users"."email" DESC

    Tima Maslyuchenko

  • Rename ActiveRecord::Fixturesclass to ActiveRecord::FixtureSet. Instances of this class normally hold a collection of fixtures (records) loaded either from a single YAML file, or from a file and a folder with the same name. This change make the class name singular and makes the class easier to distinguish from the modules like ActiveRecord::TestFixtures, which operates on multiple fixture sets, or DelegatingFixtures, ::Fixtures, etc., and from the class ActiveRecord::Fixture, which corresponds to a single fixture.

    Alexey Muranov

  • The postgres adapter now supports tables with capital letters. Fixes #5920.

    Yves Senn

  • CollectionAssociation#countreturns 0without querying if the parent record is not persisted.


    # SELECT COUNT(*) FROM "pets" WHERE "pets"."person_id" IS NULL
    # => 0


    # fires without sql query
    # => 0

    Francesco Rodriguez

  • Fix reset_counterscrashing on has_many :through associations. Fixes #7822.


  • Support for partial inserts.

    When inserting new records, only the fields which have been changed from the defaults will actually be included in the INSERT statement. The other fields will be populated by the database.

    This is more efficient, and also means that it will be safe to remove database columns without getting subsequent errors in running app processes (so long as the code in those processes doesn't contain any references to the removed column).

    The partial_updatesconfiguration option is now renamed to partial_writesto reflect the fact that it now impacts both inserts and updates.

    Jon Leighton

  • Allow before and after validations to take an array of lifecycle events

    John Foley

  • Support for specifying transaction isolation level

    If your database supports setting the isolation level for a transaction, you can set it like so:

    Post.transaction(isolation: :serializable) do
      # ...

    Valid isolation levels are:

    • :read_uncommitted

    • :read_committed

    • :repeatable_read

    • :serializable

    You should consult the documentation for your database to understand the semantics of these different levels:

    An ActiveRecord::TransactionIsolationErrorwill be raised if:

    • The adapter does not support setting the isolation level

    • You are joining an existing open transaction

    • You are creating a nested (savepoint) transaction

    The mysql, mysql2 and postgresql adapters support setting the transaction isolation level. However, support is disabled for mysql versions below 5, because they are affected by a bug (bugs.mysql.com/bug.php?id=39170) which means the isolation level gets persisted outside the transaction.

    Jon Leighton

  • ActiveModel::ForbiddenAttributesProtectionis included by default in Active Record models. Check the docs of ActiveModel::ForbiddenAttributesProtectionfor more details.

    Guillermo Iguaran

  • Remove integration between Active Record and ActiveModel::MassAssignmentSecurity, protected_attributesgem should be added to use attr_accessible/ attr_protected. Mass assignment options has been removed from all the AR methods that used it (ex. AR::Base.new, AR::Base.create, AR::Base#update_attributes, etc).

    Guillermo Iguaran

  • Fix the return of querying with an empty hash. Fixes #6971.

    User.where(token: {})


    #=> SELECT * FROM users;


    #=> SELECT * FROM users WHERE 1=0;

    Damien Mathieu

  • Fix creation of through association models when using collection=[]on a has_many :throughassociation from an unsaved model. Fixes #7661.

    Ernie Miller

  • Explain only normal CRUD sql (select / update / insert / delete). Fix problem that explains unexplainable sql. Fixes #7544 #6458.


  • You can now override the generated accessor methods for stored attributes and reuse the original behavior with read_store_attributeand write_store_attribute, which are counterparts to read_attributeand write_attribute.

    Matt Jones

  • Accept belongs_to(including polymorphic) association keys in queries.

    The following queries are now equivalent:

    Post.where(author: author)
    Post.where(author_id: author)
    PriceEstimate.where(estimate_of: treasure)
    PriceEstimate.where(estimate_of_type: 'Treasure', estimate_of_id: treasure)

    Peter Brown

  • Use native mysqldumpcommand instead of structure_dumpmethod when dumping the database structure to a sql file. Fixes #5547.


  • PostgreSQL inet and cidr types are converted to IPAddr objects.

    Dan McClain

  • PostgreSQL array type support. Any datatype can be used to create an array column, with full migration and schema dumper support.

    To declare an array column, use the following syntax:

    create_table :table_with_arrays do |t|
      t.integer :int_array, array: true
      # integer[]
      t.integer :int_array, array: true, length: 2
      # smallint[]
      t.string :string_array, array: true, length: 30
      # char varying(30)[]

    This respects any other migration detail (limits, defaults, etc). Active Record will serialize and deserialize the array columns on their way to and from the database.

    One thing to note: PostgreSQL does not enforce any limits on the number of elements, and any array can be multi-dimensional. Any array that is multi-dimensional must be rectangular (each sub array must have the same number of elements as its siblings).

    If the pg_array_parsergem is available, it will be used when parsing PostgreSQL's array representation.

    Dan McClain

  • Attribute predicate methods, such as article.title?, will now raise ActiveModel::MissingAttributeErrorif the attribute being queried for truthiness was not read from the database, instead of just returning false.

    Ernie Miller

  • ActiveRecord::SchemaDumperuses Ruby 1.9 style hash, which means that the schema.rb file will be generated using this new syntax from now on.

    Konstantin Shabanov

  • Map interval with precision to string datatype in PostgreSQL. Fixes #7518.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix eagerly loading associations without primary keys. Fixes #4976.

    Kelley Reynolds

  • Rails now raise an exception when you're trying to run a migration that has an invalid file name. Only lower case letters, numbers, and '_' are allowed in migration's file name. Please see #7419 for more details.

    Jan Bernacki

  • Fix bug when calling store_accessormultiple times. Fixes #7532.

    Matt Jones

  • Fix store attributes that show the changes incorrectly. Fixes #7532.

    Matt Jones

  • Fix ActiveRecord::Relation#pluckwhen columns or tables are reserved words.

    Ian Lesperance

  • Allow JSON columns to be created in PostgreSQL and properly encoded/decoded. to/from database.

    Dickson S. Guedes

  • Fix time column type casting for invalid time string values to correctly return nil.

    Adam Meehan

  • Allow to pass Symbol or Proc into :limitoption of accepts_nested_attributes_for.

    Mikhail Dieterle

  • ActiveRecord::SessionStore has been extracted from Active Record as activerecord-session_storegem. Please read the README.mdfile on the gem for the usage.

    Prem Sichanugrist

  • Fix reset_counterswhen there are multiple belongs_toassociation with the same foreign key and one of them have a counter cache. Fixes #5200.

    Dave Desrochers

  • serialized_attributesand _attr_readonlybecome class method only. Instance reader methods are deprecated.


  • Round usec when comparing timestamp attributes in the dirty tracking. Fixes #6975.


  • Use inversed parent for first and last child of has_many association.

    Ravil Bayramgalin

  • Fix Column.microsecondsand Column.fast_string_to_timeto avoid converting timestamp seconds to a float, since it occasionally results in inaccuracies with microsecond-precision times. Fixes #7352.

    Ari Pollak

  • Fix AR#dup to nullify the validation errors in the dup'ed object. Previously the original and the dup'ed object shared the same errors.

    Christian Seiler

  • Raise ArgumentErrorif list of attributes to change is empty in update_all.

    Roman Shatsov

  • Fix AR#create to return an unsaved record when AR::RecordInvalid is raised. Fixes #3217.

    Dave Yeu

  • Fixed table name prefix that is generated in engines for namespaced models.

    Wojciech Wnętrzak

  • Make sure :environmenttask is executed before db:schema:loador db:structure:load. Fixes #4772.

    Seamus Abshere

  • Allow Relation#merge to take a proc.

    This was requested by DHH to allow creating of one's own custom association macros.

    For example:

    module Commentable
      def has_many_comments(extra)
        has_many :comments, -> { where(:foo).merge(extra) }
    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      extend Commentable
      has_many_comments -> { where(:bar) }

    Jon Leighton

  • Add CollectionProxy#scope.

    This can be used to get a Relation from an association.

    Previously we had a scoped method, but we're deprecating that for AR::Base, so it doesn't make sense to have it here.

    This was requested by DHH, to facilitate code like this:

    Project.scope.order('created_at DESC').page(current_page).tagged_with(@tag).limit(5).scoping do
      @topics      = @project.topics.scope
      @todolists   = @project.todolists.scope
      @attachments = @project.attachments.scope
      @documents   = @project.documents.scope

    Jon Leighton

  • Add Relation#load.

    This method explicitly loads the records and then returns self.

    Rather than deciding between "do I want an array or a relation?", most people are actually asking themselves "do I want to eager load or lazy load?" Therefore, this method provides a way to explicitly eager-load without having to switch from a Relationto an array.


    @posts = Post.where(published: true).load

    Jon Leighton

  • Relation#order: make new order prepend old one.

    User.order("name asc").order("created_at desc")
    # SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY created_at desc, name asc

    This also affects order defined in default_scopeor any kind of associations.

    Bogdan Gusiev

  • Model.allnow returns an ActiveRecord::Relation, rather than an array of records. Use Relation#to_aif you really want an array.

    In some specific cases, this may cause breakage when upgrading. However in most cases the ActiveRecord::Relationwill just act as a lazy-loaded array and there will be no problems.

    Note that calling Model.allwith options (e.g. Model.all(conditions: '...')was already deprecated, but it will still return an array in order to make the transition easier.

    Model.scopedis deprecated in favour of Model.all.

    Relation#allstill returns an array, but is deprecated (since it would serve no purpose if we made it return a Relation).

    Jon Leighton

  • :finder_sqland :counter_sqloptions on collection associations are deprecated. Please transition to using scopes.

    Jon Leighton

  • :insert_sqland :delete_sqloptions on has_and_belongs_to_manyassociations are deprecated. Please transition to using has_many :through.

    Jon Leighton

  • Added #update_columnsmethod which updates the attributes from the passed-in hash without calling save, hence skipping validations and callbacks. ActiveRecordErrorwill be raised when called on new objects or when at least one of the attributes is marked as read only.

    post.attributes # => {"id"=>2, "title"=>"My title", "body"=>"My content", "author"=>"Peter"}
    post.update_columns(title: 'New title', author: 'Sebastian') # => true
    post.attributes # => {"id"=>2, "title"=>"New title", "body"=>"My content", "author"=>"Sebastian"}

    Sebastian Martinez + Rafael Mendonça França

  • The migration generator now creates a join table with (commented) indexes every time the migration name contains the word join_table:

    rails g migration create_join_table_for_artists_and_musics artist_id:index music_id

    Aleksey Magusev

  • Add add_referenceand remove_referenceschema statements. Aliases, add_belongs_toand remove_belongs_toare acceptable. References are reversible.


    # Create a user_id column
    add_reference(:products, :user)
    # Create a supplier_id, supplier_type columns and appropriate index
    add_reference(:products, :supplier, polymorphic: true, index: true)
    # Remove polymorphic reference
    remove_reference(:products, :supplier, polymorphic: true)

    Aleksey Magusev

  • Add :defaultand :nulloptions to column_exists?.

    column_exists?(:testings, :taggable_id, :integer, null: false)
    column_exists?(:testings, :taggable_type, :string, default: 'Photo')

    Aleksey Magusev

  • ActiveRecord::Relation#inspectnow makes it clear that you are dealing with a Relationobject rather than an array:.

    User.where(age: 30).inspect
    # => <ActiveRecord::Relation [#<User ...>, #<User ...>, ...]>
    User.where(age: 30).to_a.inspect
    # => [#<User ...>, #<User ...>]

    The number of records displayed will be limited to 10.

    Brian Cardarella, Jon Leighton & Damien Mathieu

  • Add collationand ctypesupport to PostgreSQL. These are available for PostgreSQL 8.4 or later. Example:

      adapter: postgresql
      host: localhost
      database: rails_development
      username: foo
      password: bar
      encoding: UTF8
      collation: ja_JP.UTF8
      ctype: ja_JP.UTF8


  • Changed validates_presence_ofon an association so that children objects do not validate as being present if they are marked for destruction. This prevents you from saving the parent successfully and thus putting the parent in an invalid state.

    Nick Monje & Brent Wheeldon

  • FinderMethods#exists?now returns falsewith the falseargument.

    Egor Lynko

  • Added support for specifying the precision of a timestamp in the PostgreSQL adapter. So, instead of having to incorrectly specify the precision using the :limitoption, you may use :precision, as intended. For example, in a migration:

    def change
      create_table :foobars do |t|
        t.timestamps precision: 0

    Tony Schneider

  • Allow ActiveRecord::Relation#pluckto accept multiple columns. Returns an array of arrays containing the typecasted values:

    Person.pluck(:id, :name)
    # SELECT people.id, people.name FROM people
    # [[1, 'David'], [2, 'Jeremy'], [3, 'Jose']]

    Jeroen van Ingen & Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • Improve the derivation of HABTM join table name to take account of nesting. It now takes the table names of the two models, sorts them lexically and then joins them, stripping any common prefix from the second table name.

    Some examples:

    Top level models (Category <=> Product)
    Old: categories_products
    New: categories_products
    Top level models with a global table_name_prefix (Category <=> Product)
    Old: site_categories_products
    New: site_categories_products
    Nested models in a module without a table_name_prefix method (Admin::Category <=> Admin::Product)
    Old: categories_products
    New: categories_products
    Nested models in a module with a table_name_prefix method (Admin::Category <=> Admin::Product)
    Old: categories_products
    New: admin_categories_products
    Nested models in a parent model (Catalog::Category <=> Catalog::Product)
    Old: categories_products
    New: catalog_categories_products
    Nested models in different parent models (Catalog::Category <=> Content::Page)
    Old: categories_pages
    New: catalog_categories_content_pages

    Andrew White

  • Move HABTM validity checks to ActiveRecord::Reflection. One side effect of this is to move when the exceptions are raised from the point of declaration to when the association is built. This is consistent with other association validity checks.

    Andrew White

  • Added stored_attributeshash which contains the attributes stored using ActiveRecord::Store. This allows you to retrieve the list of attributes you've defined.

    class User < ActiveRecord::Base store :settings, accessors: [:color, :homepage] end

    User.stored_attributes # [:color, :homepage]

    Joost Baaij & Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • PostgreSQL default log level is now 'warning', to bypass the noisy notice messages. You can change the log level using the min_messagesoption available in your config/database.yml.


  • Add uuid datatype support to PostgreSQL adapter.

    Konstantin Shabanov

  • Added ActiveRecord::Migration.check_pending!that raises an error if migrations are pending.

    Richard Schneeman

  • Added #destroy!which acts like #destroybut will raise an ActiveRecord::RecordNotDestroyedexception instead of returning false.

    Marc-André Lafortune

  • Added support to CollectionAssociation#deletefor passing fixnumor stringvalues as record ids. This finds the records responding to the idand executes delete on them.

    class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_many :pets
    person.pets.delete("1") # => [#<Pet id: 1>]
    person.pets.delete(2, 3) # => [#<Pet id: 2>, #<Pet id: 3>]

    Francesco Rodriguez

  • Deprecated most of the 'dynamic finder' methods. All dynamic methods except for find_by_...and find_by_...! are deprecated. Here's how you can rewrite the code:

    • find_all_by_...can be rewritten using where(...)

    • find_last_by_...can be rewritten using where(...).last

    • scoped_by_...can be rewritten using where(...)

    • find_or_initialize_by_...can be rewritten using where(...).first_or_initialize

    • find_or_create_by_...can be rewritten using find_or_create_by(...)or where(…).first_or_create`

    • find_or_create_by_...!can be rewritten using find_or_create_by!(...) orwhere(…).first_or_create!`

    The implementation of the deprecated dynamic finders has been moved to the activerecord-deprecated_findersgem. See below for details.

    Jon Leighton

  • Deprecated the old-style hash based finder API. This means that methods which previously accepted "finder options" no longer do. For example this:

    Post.find(:all, conditions: { comments_count: 10 }, limit: 5)

    Should be rewritten in the new style which has existed since Rails 3:

    Post.where(comments_count: 10).limit(5)

    Note that as an interim step, it is possible to rewrite the above as:

    Post.all.merge(where: { comments_count: 10 }, limit: 5)

    This could save you a lot of work if there is a lot of old-style finder usage in your application.

    Relation#mergenow accepts a hash of options, but they must be identical to the names of the equivalent finder method. These are mostly identical to the old-style finder option names, except in the following cases:

    • :conditionsbecomes :where.

    • :includebecomes :includes.

    The code to implement the deprecated features has been moved out to the activerecord-deprecated_findersgem. This gem is a dependency of Active Record in Rails 4.0, so the interface works out of the box. It will no longer be a dependency from Rails 4.1 (you'll need to add it to the Gemfilein 4.1), and will be maintained until Rails 5.0.

    Jon Leighton

  • It's not possible anymore to destroy a model marked as read only.

    Johannes Barre

  • Added ability to ActiveRecord::QueryMethods#from to accept other ActiveRecord::Relation objects.

    Record.from(subquery) Record.from(subquery, :a)

    Radoslav Stankov

  • Added custom coders support for ActiveRecord::Store. Now you can set your custom coder like this:

    store :settings, accessors: [ :color, :homepage ], coder: JSON

    Andrey Voronkov

  • mysqland mysql2connections will set SQL_MODE=STRICT_ALL_TABLESby default to avoid silent data loss. This can be disabled by specifying strict: falsein your database.yml.

    Michael Pearson

  • Added default order to firstto assure consistent results among different database engines. Introduced takeas a replacement to the old behavior of first.

    Marcelo Silveira

  • Added an :indexoption to automatically create indexes for references and belongs_to statements in migrations.

    The referencesand belongs_tomethods now support an indexoption that receives either a boolean value or an options hash that is identical to options available to the add_index method:

    create_table :messages do |t| t.references :person, index: true end

    Is the same as:

    create_table :messages do |t| t.references :person end add_index :messages, :person_id

    Generators have also been updated to use the new syntax.

    Joshua Wood

  • Added #find_byand #find_by!to mirror the functionality provided by dynamic finders in a way that allows dynamic input more easily:

    Post.find_by name: 'Spartacus', rating: 4
    Post.find_by "published_at < ?", 2.weeks.ago
    Post.find_by! name: 'Spartacus'

    Jon Leighton

  • Added ActiveRecord::Core#slice to return a hash of the given methods with their names as keys and returned values as values.

    Guillermo Iguaran

  • Deprecate eager-evaluated scopes.

    Don't use this:

    scope :red, where(color: 'red')
    default_scope where(color: 'red')

    Use this:

    scope :red, -> { where(color: 'red') }
    default_scope { where(color: 'red') }

    The former has numerous issues. It is a common newbie gotcha to do the following:

    scope :recent, where(published_at: Time.now - 2.weeks)

    Or a more subtle variant:

    scope :recent, -> { where(published_at: Time.now - 2.weeks) }
    scope :recent_red, recent.where(color: 'red')

    Eager scopes are also very complex to implement within Active Record, and there are still bugs. For example, the following does not do what you expect:

    scope :remove_conditions, except(:where)
    where(...).remove_conditions # => still has conditions

    Jon Leighton

  • Remove IdentityMap

    IdentityMap has never graduated to be an "enabled-by-default" feature, due to some inconsistencies with associations, as described in this commit:


    Hence the removal from the codebase, until such issues are fixed.

    Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • Added the schema cache dump feature.

    Schema cache dumpfeature was implemented. This feature can dump/load internal state of SchemaCacheinstance because we want to boot rails more quickly when we have many models.

    Usage notes:

    1) execute rake task. RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rake db:schema:cache:dump => generate db/schema_cache.dump

    2) add config.active_record.use_schema_cache_dump = true in config/production.rb. BTW, true is default.

    3) boot rails. RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rails server => use db/schema_cache.dump

    4) If you remove clear dumped cache, execute rake task. RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rake db:schema:cache:clear => remove db/schema_cache.dump


  • Added support for partial indices to PostgreSQL adapter.

    The add_indexmethod now supports a whereoption that receives a string with the partial index criteria.

    add_index(:accounts, :code, where: 'active')


    CREATE INDEX index_accounts_on_code ON accounts(code) WHERE active

    Marcelo Silveira

  • Implemented ActiveRecord::Relation#nonemethod.

    The nonemethod returns a chainable relation with zero records (an instance of the NullRelation class).

    Any subsequent condition chained to the returned relation will continue generating an empty relation and will not fire any query to the database.

    Juanjo Bazán

  • Added the ActiveRecord::NullRelationclass implementing the null object pattern for the Relation class.

    Juanjo Bazán

  • Added new dependent: :restrict_with_erroroption. This will add an error to the model, rather than raising an exception.

    The :restrictoption is renamed to :restrict_with_exceptionto make this distinction explicit.

    Manoj Kumar & Jon Leighton

  • Added create_join_tablemigration helper to create HABTM join tables.

    create_join_table :products, :categories
    # =>
    # create_table :categories_products, id: false do |td|
    #   td.integer :product_id,  null: false
    #   td.integer :category_id, null: false
    # end

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • The primary key is always initialized in the @attributes hash to nil(unless another value has been specified).

    Aaron Patterson

  • In previous releases, the following would generate a single query with an OUTER JOIN comments, rather than two separate queries:

        .where("comments.name = 'foo'")

    This behaviour relies on matching SQL string, which is an inherently flawed idea unless we write an SQL parser, which we do not wish to do.

    Therefore, it is now deprecated.

    To avoid deprecation warnings and for future compatibility, you must explicitly state which tables you reference, when using SQL snippets:

        .where("comments.name = 'foo'")

    Note that you do not need to explicitly specify references in the following cases, as they can be automatically inferred:

    Post.includes(:comments).where(comments: { name: 'foo' })
    Post.includes(:comments).where('comments.name' => 'foo')

    You do not need to worry about this unless you are doing eager loading. Basically, don't worry unless you see a deprecation warning or (in future releases) an SQL error due to a missing JOIN.

    Jon Leighton

  • Support for the schema_infotable has been dropped. Please switch to schema_migrations.

    Aaron Patterson

  • Connections mustbe closed at the end of a thread. If not, your connection pool can fill and an exception will be raised.

    Aaron Patterson

  • PostgreSQL hstore records can be created.

    Aaron Patterson

  • PostgreSQL hstore types are automatically deserialized from the database.

    Aaron Patterson

Please check 3-2-stable for previous changes.