Instance Public methods

Returns the result of an SQL statement that should only include a COUNT(*) in the SELECT part. The use of this method should be restricted to complicated SQL queries that can't be executed using the ActiveRecord::Calculations class methods. Look into those before using this.


  • sql- An SQL statement which should return a count query from the database, see the example below.


Product.count_by_sql "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM sales s, customers c WHERE s.customer_id ="
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/querying.rb, line 53
def count_by_sql(sql)
  sql = sanitize_conditions(sql)
  connection.select_value(sql, "#{name} Count").to_i
find_by_sql(sql, binds = [])

Executes a custom SQL query against your database and returns all the results. The results will be returned as an array with columns requested encapsulated as attributes of the model you call this method from. If you call Product.find_by_sqlthen the results will be returned in a Product object with the attributes you specified in the SQL query.

If you call a complicated SQL query which spans multiple tables the columns specified by the SELECT will be attributes of the model, whether or not they are columns of the corresponding table.

The sqlparameter is a full SQL query as a string. It will be called as is, there will be no database agnostic conversions performed. This should be a last resort because using, for example, MySQL specific terms will lock you to using that particular database engine or require you to change your call if you switch engines.


# A simple SQL query spanning multiple tables
Post.find_by_sql "SELECT p.title, FROM posts p, comments c WHERE = c.post_id"
> [#<Post:0x36bff9c @attributes={"title"=>"Ruby Meetup", "first_name"=>"Quentin"}>, ...]

# You can use the same string replacement techniques as you can with ActiveRecord#find
Post.find_by_sql ["SELECT title FROM posts WHERE author = ? AND created > ?", author_id, start_date]
> [#<Post:0x36bff9c @attributes={"title"=>"The Cheap Man Buys Twice"}>, ...]
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/querying.rb, line 36
def find_by_sql(sql, binds = [])
  logging_query_plan do
    connection.select_all(sanitize_sql(sql), "#{name} Load", binds).collect! { |record| instantiate(record) }